White light‐emitting diodes: History, progress, and future

  title={White light‐emitting diodes: History, progress, and future},
  author={Jaehee Cho and Jun Hyuk Park and Jong Kyu Kim and E. Fred Schubert},
  journal={Laser \& Photonics Reviews},
About twenty years ago, in the autumn of 1996, the first white light‐emitting diodes (LEDs) were offered for sale. These then‐new devices ushered in a new era in lighting by displacing lower‐efficiency conventional light sources including Edison's venerable incandescent lamp as well as the Hg‐discharge‐based fluorescent lamp. We review the history of the conception, improvement, and commercialization of the white LED. Early models of white LEDs already exceeded the efficiency of low‐wattage… 

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