White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres

  title={White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres},
  author={P. Dufour and James William Liebert and Gilles Fontaine and Natalie Behara},
White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8–10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ∼80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have… Expand
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Central stars of planetary nebulae: The white dwarf connection
  • K. Werner
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union
  • 2011
Abstract This paper is focused on the transition phase between central stars and white dwarfs, i.e. objects in the effective temperature range 100 000 – 200 000 K. We confine our review toExpand
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