White Plumage of Sea-Birds

@article{Craik1944WhitePO,
  title={White Plumage of Sea-Birds},
  author={K. J. W. Craik},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1944},
  volume={153},
  pages={288-288}
}
IT is often considered that the white plumage of gulls, terns, gannets, etc., in temperate climates is in contradiction to the principle of protective and adaptive coloration, and survives only because these birds are relatively safe from attack and able to protect themselves. Thus Cott1 remarks that “in any normal surroundings” they are “positively conspicuous” but considers that their strength and pugnacity protect them. 
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
DR. K. J. W. CRAIK'S suggestion1 that the white coloration of sea-birds is adaptive in the sense of rendering them less conspicuous to their prospective victims cannot be considered convincing in
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
IN recent correspondence, Craik1 has suggested that the white plumage of gulls and some other sea-birds might be an advantage to them by rendering them less visible to the fish on which they prey.
White Plumage
-Many birds with colored dorsal plumage have white underparts and among waterbirds extensive white plumage is common. Feathers are made of keratin, which is naturally transparent and colorless. They
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
In a recent communication1 on this subject, Craikmakes some suggestions which we have attempted to examine further. A simple experiment in which conditions natural to fish were imitated was made on
Plumage Dimorphism in the Reddish Egret: Does Plumage Coloration Influence Foraging Habitat Use and Tactics?
TLDR
The hypothesis that Reddish Egrets may alter foraging tactics based on their degree of crypsis to prey is supported by investigating choice of water depth and choice of foraging Tactics.
Geographical Variation of the Plumage Polymorphism in the Eastern Reef Heron (Egretta sacra)
I investigated the distribution of white and dark morphs of the Eastern Reef Heron (Egretta sacra) on several coasts and islands in central to southwestern Japan, eastern Australia, and French
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It is suggested that whitetailed brown morph at Europa may act as a defensive camouflage against kleptoparasitism by great frigatebirds Fregata minor and brown skuas Catharacta antarctica.
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It is shown that the fishing success of individual black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus, increases with flock size up to at least eight birds, and conspicuous white upper parts in gulls may act as a means of attracting other gulls to the flock and hence improving hunting success.
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