White Plumage of Sea-Birds

  title={White Plumage of Sea-Birds},
  author={K. J. W. Craik},
IT is often considered that the white plumage of gulls, terns, gannets, etc., in temperate climates is in contradiction to the principle of protective and adaptive coloration, and survives only because these birds are relatively safe from attack and able to protect themselves. Thus Cott1 remarks that “in any normal surroundings” they are “positively conspicuous” but considers that their strength and pugnacity protect them. 
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
DR. K. J. W. CRAIK'S suggestion1 that the white coloration of sea-birds is adaptive in the sense of rendering them less conspicuous to their prospective victims cannot be considered convincing in
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
IN recent correspondence, Craik1 has suggested that the white plumage of gulls and some other sea-birds might be an advantage to them by rendering them less visible to the fish on which they prey.
White Plumage
-Many birds with colored dorsal plumage have white underparts and among waterbirds extensive white plumage is common. Feathers are made of keratin, which is naturally transparent and colorless. They
White Plumage of Sea-Birds
In a recent communication1 on this subject, Craikmakes some suggestions which we have attempted to examine further. A simple experiment in which conditions natural to fish were imitated was made on
Plumage Dimorphism in the Reddish Egret: Does Plumage Coloration Influence Foraging Habitat Use and Tactics?
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