AIMS We aim to explore whether people with epilepsy have increased white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). METHODS Eligible patients were categorized into newly diagnosed epilepsy (NE) and chronic epilepsy (CE); the latter were subdivided to those treated with enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs) with or without non-enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (NEIAEDs) and those with NEIAEDs only. WMHs were measured using age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale and compared between patients and healthy control group. Higher scores indicate greater WMH changes. The strengths of associations were estimated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS A total of 217 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 67 had NE, 45 had CE treated with NEIAEDs, and 105 had CE treated with EIAEDs. Age was positively associated with ARWMC score (IRR per year, 1.03; 95%CI, 1.03-1.04, P < 0.001). Compared with the healthy control group (n = 23), all patient groups had higher ARWMC score (P < 0.05). The difference was greatest in patients receiving EIAEDs (IRR, 2.13; 95%CI, 1.22-3.70, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS WMHs tended to be observed in people with epilepsy, especially in those treated with EIAEDs. People with epilepsy with white matter changes should be evaluated for stroke risk, particularly if they are receiving EIAEDs.