White Collars, Gray Lives? The Lower Middle Class Revisited

  title={White Collars, Gray Lives? The Lower Middle Class Revisited},
  author={Paul Bailey},
  journal={Journal of British Studies},
  pages={273 - 290}
  • P. Bailey
  • Published 1 July 1999
  • History
  • Journal of British Studies
The lower middle class has long had a bad press, for in common with other subaltern groups it has been more represented from without than within. Thus Victorian writers faced with the disquieting irruption of a new breed of petty bourgeois shop and office workers devised a parodic discourse of littleness, whose feminized tropes rendered the clerk as socially insignificant as the sequestered Victorian woman. George Grossmith's comic classic, Diary of a Nobody, pilloried the new social type in Mr… 

Second‐class citizens? english middle‐class culture and sport, 1850–1910: a reconsideration

From the second half of the nineteenth century onwards English middleclass sport increasingly functioned as a powerful cultural bond, moral metaphor, and political symbol. It had a major impact on

The dip pen as a source of social distinction in Victorian Britain

ABSTRACT In the nineteenth century, Britain was the epicentre of pen-making, with around 75% of the world’s dip pens being manufactured in Birmingham. While the ownership of dip pens was initially

Temporary Gentlemen: The Masculinity of Lower-Middle-Class Temporary British Officers in the First World War

During the First World War, the high mortality rate of officers led to an officer shortage. This, in turn, resulted in the Army promoting officers from the ranks rather than drawing on the

‘A Rather Undefined Social Position and Public Recognition’: Professionalisation, Status and Masculinity in Provincial Museums, c.1870–1930

  • K. Hill
  • Sociology
    Gender & History
  • 2021
This article examines the background, careers and self‐presentation of the first generation of British museum curators in local government‐funded provincial museums, c.1900, to explore the issue of

On “Queer Street”: Queer Masculinity and Financial Agents in Dickens

In both the modern sense of the word and in the more capacious, nineteenth-century meaning of the term, the capitalist society of Victorian England was “queer.” Since Michel Foucault’s History of

Creating a modern home : homeowners in post-war suburban Glasgow, 1945-1975

This thesis examines how married couples bought and created a modern home for their families in suburban Glasgow between 1945-1975. New homeowners were on the cusp of the middle-classes, buying in a

Ally Sloper’s Half-Holiday: The Geography of Class in Late-Victorian Britain

A regular feature of Ally Sloper's Half-Holiday, an illustrated comic newspaper published from 1884 until 1923?though sporadically after 1916, is Ally Sloper's travels in and around London and to the

Manliness and the English soldier in the Anglo-Boer War 1899-1902 : the more things change, the more they stay the same

This thesis uses the Victorian ideology of chivalric manliness to explain the class-oriented army hierarchy developed by volunteer soldiers from northern England during the Anglo-Boer War of

A Novel Approach to History: Arnold Bennett, Marie Corelli and the Interior Lives of Single Middle-Class Women, England, 1880-1914

There are many ‘gaps’ or ‘silences’1 in women’s history – especially in relation to their interior lives. Historians seeking to penetrate the thoughts and emotions of ‘ordinary’ single middle-class

Exchange Value: British “Scholarship Boys” in Mid-Twentieth-Century America

In the late 1950s and early 1960s a number of British “scholarship boys” traveled to America sponsored by British and American foundations. Their experiences in the United States qualify and



The Lower Middle Class as Historical Problem

The lower middle class is a complex and unstable social, political, and cultural compound that deserves close and systematic analysis. No doubt, it is more than the mere sum of its many and

Family Fortunes: Men and Women of the English Middle Class 1780-1850

""Family Fortunes" is a major groundbreaking study that will become a classic in its field. I was fascinated by the information it provided and the argument it established about the role of gender in

Pooterism or partnership? Marriage and masculine identity in the lower middle class, 1870-1920.

I spent the evening quietly with Carrie, of whose company I never tire. We had a most pleasant chat about the letters on ‘Is Marriage a Failure?’ It has been no failure in our case. This was the

Splintered Classes: Politics and the Lower Middle Classes in Interwar Europe.

In contrast with traditional approaches, which have seen a more or less uniform middleclass response to the political and economic crises of the age of fascism, this comparative study of the politics

Metaphors of the Middle: the Discovery of the Petite Bourgeoisie 1880–1914

  • G. Crossick
  • History
    Transactions of the Royal Historical Society
  • 1994
AFTER a long period of neglect, during which historians had looked towards the petite bourgeoisie primarily to heap upon it the responsibility for fascism, the last fifteen years has seen a growing

Class, Sect and Party: The Making of the British Middle Class. Leeds 1820-1850.

The middle class of the northern industrial towns played a key role in economic development and the creation of a class society. This book draws upon a computer-based nominal record linkage to show

Marriage or celibacy? : the Daily telegraph on a Victorian dilemma

In July 1868 the Daily Telegraph congratulated itself on providing the arena for a controversy marked by 'good sense, liveliness, practical wisdom, and hearty humanity.' The controversy was over the

British Socialists and the Politics of Popular Culture, 1884-1914

The British social movement emerged at the same time that working-class culture was being transformed by new forms of commercial entertainment. This work explores the relationship between the

The Culture of Capital: Art, Power and the Nineteenth-Century Middle Class

The failure of the Victorian middle class - a critique, Simon Gunn commerce and the liberal arts - the political economy of art in Manchester, 1775-1860, John Seed class, culture and control - the

A ‘Brave and Daring Folk’? Shopkeepers and Trade Associational Life in Victorian and Edwardian England

Trade associations are generally acknowledged to have occupied a critical position in the shopkeeping community of early twentieth-century England.2 Yet surprisingly historians have made little