Whispering gallery mode sensors.

  title={Whispering gallery mode sensors.},
  author={Matthew R. Foreman and Jon D. Swaim and Frank Vollmer},
  journal={Advances in optics and photonics},
  volume={7 2},
We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to… 

Fluorescent and lasing whispering gallery mode microresonators for sensing applications

Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have been exploited for a broad range of sensing applications. However, the vast majority of WGM sensors consist of passive resonators, requiring complex interrogation

Optical Whispering-Gallery-Mode Microbubble Sensors

Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microbubble resonators are ideal optical sensors due to their high quality factor, small mode volume, high optical energy density, and geometry/design/structure (i.e.,

Combining whispering gallery mode lasers and microstructured optical fibers: limitations, applications and perspectives for in-vivo biosensing

Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have been widely studied over the past 20 years for various applications, including biological sensing. While the WGM-based sensing approaches reported in the

Microfluidic Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Sensors for Biological Applications

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators have been exploited as a highly sensitive and efficient sensing technique in the past few years. They offer the advantages of ultrahigh sensitivity, compact

Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microresonators: Structures and Sensing Applications

Whispering gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) have achieved significant results due to their unique properties such as extremely small mode volume, ultra‐high quality (Q) factor, fast dynamic response,

Optofluidic whispering gallery mode microcapillary lasers for refractive index sensing

Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) allow for remarkable refractive index sensing performance with extremely low detection limits, and thus have found use in various emerging label free biosensing

Optical whispering-gallery mode barcodes for high-precision and wide-range temperature measurements

This work demonstrates an optical WGM barcode technique involving simultaneous monitoring of the patterns of multiple modes that can provide a direct temperature readout from the spectrum and lays the foundation for developing a high-performance temperature sensor with not only superior sensitivity but also a broad dynamic range.

All-polymer whispering gallery mode sensor in the low-Q regime

Microcavities, such as spheres, rings or toroids, show sharp optical resonances at specific wavelengths, called whispering gallery modes (WGMs). They correspond to light waves circling around the

Towards optical biosensors based on whispering-gallery modes in microsphere resonators

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) sensors have attracted a significant level of interest recently due to their high level of sensitivity in the field of life sciences as biosensors. However, integrated



The physics of extreme sensitivity in whispering gallery mode optical biosensors

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical biosensors are capable of extraordinarily sensitive specific and nonspecific detection of species suspended in a gas or fluid. Recent experimental results

Interfacing whispering-gallery microresonators and free space light with cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering

A new class of nanocouplers based on cavity enhanced Rayleigh scattering from nano-scatterer(s) on resonator surface is reported and demonstrated, which will not only expand the range of applications enabled by WGMRs, but also provide a possible route to integrate them into solar powered green photonics.

Whispering gallery mode biosensors in the low-Q limit

Whispering gallery modes (WGM) of dye-doped polystyrene beads with diameters from 20 down to 1.5 μm are studied with respect to their appearance and linewidth by excitation of the entire mode

Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing

A new technique for whispering gallery mode sensing based on direct detection of back-scattered light is introduced, immune to frequency noise in principle, and further, acts to suppress thermorefractive noise.

Spherical whispering‐gallery‐mode microresonators

Whispering‐gallery modes (WGM) on a spherical surface were first described by Lord Rayleigh at the beginning of the last century, but only after the invention of laser did they start to have some

Ultimate resolution for refractometric sensing with whispering gallery mode microcavities.

Simple numerical expressions to calculate the ultimate sensor resolution and detection limits were found, and the results compared to experiments in which the resonances of fluorescent-core microcapillaries responded to various sucrose concentrations in water.

Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern.

A novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs that enables one to control the narrow-band phase-matching conditions in nonlinear processes such as second-harmonic generation or parametric down-conversion.

Bio-sensing using toroidal microresonators & theoretical cavity optomechanics

In this thesis we report on two matters, (i) time-resolved single particle bio-sensing using a cavity enhanced refractive index sensor with unmatched sensitivity, and (ii) the theoretical analysis of

Optical resonances in microcylinders: response to perturbations for biosensing

Whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in dielectric microcylinders are investigated numerically as sensitive probes of the surrounding medium, for applications in chemical sensing and biosensing. We