Which side of the tree is more basal?

@article{Krell2004WhichSO,
  title={Which side of the tree is more basal?},
  author={Frank‐T. Krell and Peter S. Cranston},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  year={2004},
  volume={29}
}
When a tree is rooted, it has a base. Everything near that base is basal. A clade branching off near the base is a basal clade, isn’t it? Does this make sense? No, it doesn’t. As editors of Systematic Entomology we regularly receive discussions of ‘basal’ clades or taxa. We find them in a great proportion of submitted papers and even in a widely used textbook (Forey et al., 1992: 134; eliminated from the second edition). Google found 100 hits for ‘the most basal clade’ and seventy-five for ‘the… 

Phylogenetic Context and Basal Metazoan Model Systems1

Hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying metazoan evolution can be drawn from the study of model organisms in Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera, but it is clear that these model organisms are likely to be derived in many respects, and testing these hypotheses requires theStudy of yet additional model organisms.

What Is the Meaning of Extreme Phylogenetic Diversity? The Case of Phylogenetic Relict Species

In conclusion, relict species are extreme cases of phylogenetic diversity, often endangered and with high symbolic value, of important value for conservation.

Should the terms 'basal taxon' and 'transitional taxon' be extinguished from cladistic studies with extinct organisms?

It is shown how statements that are in accordance with the cladistic method can substitute both terms in order to avoid pointless or misleading information.

Is evolutionary biology becoming too politically correct? A reflection on the scala naturae, phylogenetically basal clades, anatomically plesiomorphic taxa, and ‘lower’ animals

The notion of scala naturae dates back to thinkers such as Aristotle, who placed plants below animals and ranked the latter along a graded scale of complexity from ‘lower’ to ‘higher’ animals, such

Basal phylogenetic asymmetry in species-rich natural taxa of plants: a multivariate study

  • Bálint CzupponJ. Podani
  • Environmental Science
    Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with all Aspects of Plant Biology
  • 2021
Abstract Sister groups at the root of large plant clades (with ≥1000 extant species) are described in terms of variables expressing species richness, geographical distribution, age, diversification

Rooting the phylogenetic tree for winged insects: independent adaptations to terrestrial life

Entomological theory may now be passing through a paradigm shift where, for the first time, the phylogenetic tree for all insects may be firmly rooted.

Inferring biogeographic history from molecular phylogenies

A method for analysing the biogeography of a group that is based on the group’s phylogeny but does not invoke founder dispersal or centre of origin, and the fossil-calibrated molecular clock, with dates transmogrified from minimum to maximum dates, is used to test for vicariance.

Bryophytes are not early diverging land plants.

It is shown how thinking of the tree of life in terms of early-diverging lineages and higher groups can distort evolutionary literacy, confound interdisciplinary communication, and potentially bias research agendas.
...

References

SHOWING 1-8 OF 8 REFERENCES

Cladistics: A Practical Course in Systematics

The relations between similarities homoplasty and the interpretation of character conflict monophyletic, paraphyletic and polyphyletic groups sister groups and ancestor-descendant relationships the transformation of cladistics phenetics eclectic of evolutionary taxonomy.

The Insects - An Outline of Entomology

The Antiquity of Insects, the Evolution of Metamorphosis, and Insect Relationships: Phylogenetics, Biogeography and Evolution.

Stammesgeschichte der Chordaten

Cladistic Analysis or Cladistic Classification A Reply to Ernst Mayr

Phylogenetische Systematik der Wirbeltiere

  • 2004

Systematic Zoology, 24, 244–256

  • Stammesgeschichte der Chordaten. Fortschritte
  • 1983