Which side of the tree is more basal?

@article{Krell2004WhichSO,
  title={Which side of the tree is more basal?},
  author={F. Krell and P. Cranston},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  year={2004},
  volume={29}
}
When a tree is rooted, it has a base. Everything near that base is basal. A clade branching off near the base is a basal clade, isn’t it? Does this make sense? No, it doesn’t. As editors of Systematic Entomology we regularly receive discussions of ‘basal’ clades or taxa. We find them in a great proportion of submitted papers and even in a widely used textbook (Forey et al., 1992: 134; eliminated from the second edition). Google found 100 hits for ‘the most basal clade’ and seventy-five for ‘the… Expand
Tree thinking and species delimitation: Guidelines for taxonomy and phylogenetic terminology
TLDR
This editorial briefly summarizes phylogenetic and taxonomic issues and provides guidelines to authors submitting their studies to Mammalian Biology in order to avoid errors in phylogenetic discussions and to do justice to the fundamental nature of species in biology. Expand
Phylogenetic Context and Basal Metazoan Model Systems1
TLDR
Hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying metazoan evolution can be drawn from the study of model organisms in Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera, but it is clear that these model organisms are likely to be derived in many respects, and testing these hypotheses requires theStudy of yet additional model organisms. Expand
What Is the Meaning of Extreme Phylogenetic Diversity? The Case of Phylogenetic Relict Species
TLDR
In conclusion, relict species are extreme cases of phylogenetic diversity, often endangered and with high symbolic value, of important value for conservation. Expand
Should the terms 'basal taxon' and 'transitional taxon' be extinguished from cladistic studies with extinct organisms?
TLDR
It is shown how statements that are in accordance with the cladistic method can substitute both terms in order to avoid pointless or misleading information. Expand
8 – Phylogenetic Analysis of Pathogens
TLDR
This chapter introduces the important facets of the topic of producing phylogenetic trees, and the direct relevance to the study of infectious organisms' transmission. Expand
Is evolutionary biology becoming too politically correct? A reflection on the scala naturae, phylogenetically basal clades, anatomically plesiomorphic taxa, and ‘lower’ animals
The notion of scala naturae dates back to thinkers such as Aristotle, who placed plants below animals and ranked the latter along a graded scale of complexity from ‘lower’ to ‘higher’ animals, suchExpand
Rooting the phylogenetic tree for winged insects: independent adaptations to terrestrial life
TLDR
Entomological theory may now be passing through a paradigm shift where, for the first time, the phylogenetic tree for all insects may be firmly rooted. Expand
Inferring biogeographic history from molecular phylogenies
TLDR
A method for analysing the biogeography of a group that is based on the group’s phylogeny but does not invoke founder dispersal or centre of origin, and the fossil-calibrated molecular clock, with dates transmogrified from minimum to maximum dates, is used to test for vicariance. Expand
Tree thinking for all biology: the problem with reading phylogenies as ladders of progress.
TLDR
Emphasizing that modern phylogenies of present-day species and genes show relationships among evolutionary cousins in the 21st century will help correct inferences about ancestral characteristics, and will enable us to leave behind 19(th) century notions about the ladder of progress driving evolution. Expand
Tree thinking, time and topology: comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics
TLDR
A graph theoretical overview of tree diagrams applied extensively in systematic biology is presented, demonstrating that each of these tree types is useful on its own right in evolutionary biology and systematics. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 10 REFERENCES
Cladistics: A Practical Course in Systematics
TLDR
The relations between similarities homoplasty and the interpretation of character conflict monophyletic, paraphyletic and polyphyletic groups sister groups and ancestor-descendant relationships the transformation of cladistics phenetics eclectic of evolutionary taxonomy. Expand
The Insects - An Outline of Entomology
TLDR
The Antiquity of Insects, the Evolution of Metamorphosis, and Insect Relationships: Phylogenetics, Biogeography and Evolution. Expand
Phylogenetische Systematik der Wirbeltiere
  • 2004
Cladistics. A Practical
  • 1992
Stammesgeschichte der Chordaten
Systematic Zoology, 24, 244–256
  • Stammesgeschichte der Chordaten. Fortschritte
  • 1983
Cladistic Analysis or Cladistic Classification A Reply to Ernst Mayr
Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification? Zeitschrift fu¨r Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung
  • 1974