Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development.

  title={Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development.},
  author={Judith Rich Harris},
  journal={Psychological Review},
  • J. Harris
  • Published 1995
  • Psychology
  • Psychological Review
Do parents have any important long-term effects on the development of their child's personality? This article examines the evidence and concludes that the answer is no. A new theory of development is proposed: that socialization is context-specific and that outside-the-home socialization takes place in the peer groups of childhood and adolescence. Intraand intergroup processes, not dyadic relationships, are responsible for the transmission of culture and for environmental modification of… 
Socialization, personality development, and the child's environments: comment on Vandell (2000).
Group socialization theory attributes outside-the-home socialization to identification with a peer group and assimilation of group norms, but attributes nongenetic variation in personality to differentiation within the group.
Toward a Model of Family-Environmental and Child-Biological Influences on Development☆
This paper illuminates different perspectives on family influences on the child's development. Genetic and biological factors make very important contributions to the development of individual
A Study of Parenting Style in Relation to Emotional Intelligence Value Orientation and Social Adjustment among Secondary School Students of Delhi
The Indian family plays a key role in the socialization process of the child (from infancy to childhood and even to the extent of adulthood) and uses family specific values to bring up the child.
Parents, peer groups, and other socializing influences.
The available evidence is more consistent with a model of multiple socialization agents, and an expanded research agenda that permits a more definitive test of J. R. Harris's propositions and social relationship theory is proposed.
Sociocultural differences in the developmental consequences of the use of physical discipline during childhood for African Americans.
  • A. Whaley
  • Psychology
    Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology
  • 2000
A review of the literature indicates that the positive association between spanking and child behavior problems is bidirectional for White families, whereas it is the product of reverse causation (i.e., negative child behaviors result in spanking) in Black families.
Children's Role in Generating Social Capital
Using data from the 500 Family Study, this study examines how adolescents contribute to their families' social capital. An instrumental variable model reveals that adolescents' social involvement has
Gendered-peer relationships in educational contexts.
The role of classroom norms in contextualizing the relations of children's social behaviors to peer acceptance.
  • Lei Chang
  • Psychology, Sociology
    Developmental psychology
  • 2004
This study introduces a social context model within which peer acceptances of prosocial-leadership, aggression, and social withdrawal were examined as functions of the contextual norms of these
The child and the family: interdependence in developmental pathways
This contribution focuses on the family as the major context for children's development, it includes concepts of the family as an institution for the transmission of meaning on the one hand, and it
Socialization Processes and Children Development in the Family
Process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, language, social skills, and value to conform to the norms and roles required for integration into a group or community. It is a combination of


Childhood Social Development: Contemporary Perspectives
J. Archer, The Social Worlds of Boys and Girls. J. Brooks?Gunn, R.L. Paikoff, Changes in Self Feelings During the Transition Towards Adolescence. H.R. Schaffer, Joint Involvement Episodes as Context
Natural Peer Groups as Contexts for Individual Development: The Case of Children's Motivation in School.
This study examined the role of natural peer-group selection and socialization processes in children's school motivation. At the beginning of the school year, self- and teacher reports of classroom
Parental behavior in diverse societies
The United States is currently engaged in a public discourse over what constitutes good child care, who should do it, and what effects it has on children, occasioned by a rapid increase of
Peer relationships in child development.
Part 1 Processes: popularity and friendship: issues in theory, measurement, and outcome behavioral manifestations of children's friendships social conflict and development peers and siblings social
Gender segregation in childhood.
Social Networks in Child Rearing and Child Development
Studying social networks as they relate to child rearing and child development focuses our attention on a set of variables that have been much neglected in the developmental literature. It is not
The impact of divorce on children.
With the acceleration of the divorce rate from the mid- 1960s to the early 1980s, the number of nontraditional families (such as single-parent families and reconstituted families) have increased
A cross-contextual analysis of boys' social competence: From family to school.
This study examined the extent to which the hostile attributions and coercive behaviors of mothers and sons were associated with indexes of aggression, acceptance by peers, and teacher-rated social
Changes in Family and Peer Orientation of Children Between the Fourth and Tenth Grades
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Socialization in Context
This study investigated the relation to school grades, feelings of depression, and antisocial behavior of youth perceptions of three central dimensions of socialization (connection with