Where are urban energy transitions governed? Conceptualizing the complex governance arrangements for low-carbon mobility in Europe

  title={Where are urban energy transitions governed? Conceptualizing the complex governance arrangements for low-carbon mobility in Europe},
  author={H{\aa}vard Haarstad},
Abstract This article addresses the question of where urban low-carbon energy transitions are governed. A challenge is that urban governance is not simply urban, but a complex assemblage of institutions, networks and socio-technical arrangements. There are several on-going literature debates discussing the different types of processes in which cities are involved. I disaggregate these into vertical processes (multilevel governance perspectives), horizontal processes (network and policy mobility… Expand

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