Where are Europe’s last primary forests?

  title={Where are Europe’s last primary forests?},
  author={Francesco Maria Sabatini and Sabina Burrascano and William S. Keeton and Christian Levers and Marcus Lindner and Florian P{\"o}tzschner and Pieter Johannes Verkerk and J{\"u}rgen Bauhus and Erik Buchwald and Oleh Chaskovsky and Nicolas Debaive and Ferenc Horv{\'a}th and Matteo Garbarino and Nikolaos Grigoriadis and Fabio Lombardi and In{\^e}s Marques Duarte and Peter Meyer and Rein Midteng and Stjepan Mikac and Martin Mikol{\'a}{\vs} and Renzo Motta and Gintautas Mozgeris and Le{\'o}nia Nunes and Momchil Panayotov and P{\'e}ter {\'O}dor and Alejandro Ruete and Bojan Simovski and Jonas Stillhard and Miroslav Svoboda and Jerzy Szwagrzyk and Olli-Pekka Tikkanen and Roman Volosyanchuk and Tom{\'a}{\vs} Vr{\vs}ka and Tzvetan Zlatanov and Tobias Kuemmerle},
  journal={Diversity and Distributions},
  pages={1426 - 1439}
Primary forests have high conservation value but are rare in Europe due to historic land use. Yet many primary forest patches remain unmapped, and it is unclear to what extent they are effectively protected. Our aim was to (1) compile the most comprehensive European‐scale map of currently known primary forests, (2) analyse the spatial determinants characterizing their location and (3) locate areas where so far unmapped primary forests likely occur. 

Protection gaps and restoration opportunities for primary forests in Europe

Primary forests are critical for forest biodiversity and provide key ecosystem services. In Europe, these forests are particularly scarce and it is unclear whether they are sufficiently protected.

European primary forest database v2.0

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The maintenance and conservation of forest biodiversity has become a pivotal task of ecologically sustainable forest management. It depends on the appropriate management of forest composition and

Structural complexity in managed and strictly protected mountain forests: Effects on the habitat suitability for indicator bird species

Abstract Increasing the proportion of unmanaged forests in multi-functional forest landscapes is a primary goal of international and national conservation strategies aiming at restoring natural

European Primary Forest Database (EPFD) v2.0

An updated geodatabase and map of Europe’s known primary forests is presented and it is estimated that 94% of the patches in the database did not experience significant disturbances that would alter their primary forest status in the last 30 year.



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It is shown that global IFL extent has been reduced by 7.2% since the year 2000, largely driven by the tripling of IFL tropical forest loss in 2011–2013 compared to that in 2001–2003.

Moving beyond the concept of "primary forest" as a metric of forest environment quality.

The case for an operational reconsideration of the primary forest concept is presented and how alternatives or supplements might be developed are discussed and how to assess impacts of such changes on ecosystem services are discussed.

Drivers of forest harvesting intensity patterns in Europe

Continued loss of temperate old-growth forests in the Romanian Carpathians despite an increasing protected area network

SUMMARY Old-growth forests around the world are vanishing rapidly and have been lost almost completely from the European temperate forest region. Poor management practices, often triggered by

Trade-Offs Between Forest Protection and Wood Supply in Europe

To what extent forests are currently protected and how felling restrictions affect the potential annual wood supply within 27 European Union member states, Norway, and Switzerland is assessed and trade-offs between intensified use of forest biomass and forest protection efforts are discussed.

A walk on the wild side: Disturbance dynamics and the conservation and management of European mountain forest ecosystems.