When the Referee Sees Red …

  title={When the Referee Sees Red …},
  author={Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauss and Jan Leissing},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={769 - 771}
Hill and Barton (2005) showed that wearing red sports attire has a positive impact on one's outcome in a combat sport (e.g., tae kwon do or wrestling). They suggested that this effect is due to an evolutionary or cultural association of the color red with dominance and aggression, proposing that this association triggers a psychological effect in an athlete who wears red (or in his or her opponent; e.g., Cuthill, Hunt, Cleary, & Clark, 1997; Milinski & Bakker, 1990; Setchell & Wickings, 2005… 
Fading red? No evidence that color of trunks influences outcomes in the ultimate fighting championship (UFC)
The present study aims to conceptually replicate the effects found by Hill and Barton (2005) by testing for a “winning red” effect based on the color of shorts (trunks) in the ultimate fighting championship (UFC) (www.ufc.com), a televised mixed martial arts competition.
The Influence of the "Red Win" Effect in Sports: A Hypothesis of Erroneous Perception of Opponents Dressed in Red - Preliminary Test
Purpose. Psychological research indicates that, in contact sports, the results of sports competitions might be influenced by the color of an athlete’s uniform (especially the color red). However,
Does uniform color affect offside in association football
Past research has documented an impact of sportswear color on performance and referees' judgments in combat and team sports. Amongst other things, it was argued that these effects may arise from
The Red Power(less) Tie
Research has demonstrated that wearing red can have significant effects on perceptions of the wearer. However, these findings are based on impressions formed while viewing static images. Here, I
The influence of red on perceptions of relative dominance and threat in a competitive context.
Analysis of whether red influences perceptions of relative dominance and threat in an imagined same-sex competitive context, and attending to the distinction between wearing red oneself and viewing red on an opponent, revealed a bidirectional effect.
The influence of red colouration on human perception of aggression and dominance in neutral settings
For both humans and nonhuman species, there is evidence that red colouration signals both emotional states (arousal/anger) and biological traits (dominance, health, and testosterone). The presence
Exploring the Implicit Link Between Red and Aggressiveness as Well as Blue and Agreeableness
According to the results, both college students and athletes respond faster to congruent tasks than to incongruent tasks, which may relate to the athletes’ professional experience and the athletes may be more aggressive and impulsive.
Influence of red jersey color on physical parameters in combat sports.
Investigation of the effects of jersey color during a combat situation on fighters' physical parameters of strength and heart rate showed that participants' body functions are influenced by wearing red equipment.
Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?
There is no winning bias in judo and the lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in Judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play.
Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.
Red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility, and it was found that a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased and hostile people were biased to see the colorred more frequently than nonhostile people.


Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context
Another data set from the 2004 Olympics is used to show that similar winning biases occur in contests in which neither contestant wears red, indicating that a different mechanism may be responsible for these effects.
The dark side of self- and social perception: black uniforms and aggression in professional sports.
An analysis of the penalty records of the National Football League and the National Hockey League indicate that teams with black uniforms in both sports ranked near the top of their leagues in penalties throughout the period of study.
Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context (reply)
E10 The shirt colour worn by sportsmen can affect the behaviour of the competitors 1,2 , but Hill and Barton 3 show that it may also influence the outcome of contests. By analysing the results of
Sports performance judgments from a social cognitive perspective
Abstract Objective Judging one's own or others’ performance is a central task for most people involved in competitive sports—either as athletes, coaches, referees, or spectators. Social cognition is
Psychology: Red enhances human performance in contests
Across a range of sports, it is found that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning, indicating not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.
Errors in judging ‘offside’ in football
Why assistant referees, who have the responsibility of judging offside, regularly make mistakes is investigated and it is shown that this is probably due to the angle of viewing by the assistant referee, who is frequently positioned beyond the last defender.
Dominance, Status Signals and Coloration in Male Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx)
Where individuals contest access to a resource, escalated physical fighting presents a risk to all involved. The requirement for mechanisms of conflict management has led to the evolution of a
Colour bands, dominance, and body mass regulation in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)
Two experiments are presented which demonstrate significant effects of band colour on behavioural dominance (red bands are more dominant than light green bands) and the resulting diurnal pattern of gain in mass, fat, and seeds stored in the crop and the results are consistent with the literature on dominance and strategic regulation of body mass in other species.
Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males
It is shown that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition, and the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of theirbreeding coloration.
Sporting contests: Seeing red
  • Putting sportswear in context. Nature,
  • 2005