When static media promote active learning: annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction.

  title={When static media promote active learning: annotated illustrations versus narrated animations in multimedia instruction.},
  author={Richard E. Mayer and Mary Hegarty and Sarah Mayer and Julie Campbell},
  journal={Journal of experimental psychology. Applied},
  volume={11 4},
In 4 experiments, students received a lesson consisting of computer-based animation and narration or a lesson consisting of paper-based static diagrams and text. The lessons used the same words and graphics in the paper-based and computer-based versions to explain the process of lightning formation (Experiment 1), how a toilet tank works (Experiment 2), how ocean waves work (Experiment 3), and how a car's braking system works (Experiment 4). On subsequent retention and transfer tests, the paper… 

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