When small effects are impressive

@article{Prentice1992WhenSE,
  title={When small effects are impressive},
  author={Deborah A. Prentice and Dale T. Miller},
  journal={Psychological Bulletin},
  year={1992},
  volume={112},
  pages={160-164}
}
Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to demonstrate that an effect is important. This article describes 2 alternative methodological strategies, in which importance is a function of how minimal a manipulation of the independent variable or how difficult-to-influence a dependent variable will still produce an effect. These methodologies demonstrate… Expand
Effect Size Measures
A variety of measures of effect magnitude are described. Many of the measures can be classified as either measures of effect size (typically, standardized mean differences) or measures of strength ofExpand
Effect Size Measures
A variety of measures of effect magnitude are described. Many of the measures can be classified as either measures of effect size (typically, standardized mean differences) or measures of strength ofExpand
Effect size and practical importance: a non‐monotonic match
As an alternative to statistical testing, effect size has a non‐monotonic linkage with practical importance. Besides random variance and systematic bias, a proper interpretation of effect size hingesExpand
Evaluating Effect Size in Psychological Research: Sense and Nonsense
  • D. Funder, D. Ozer
  • Psychology
  • Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science
  • 2019
Effect sizes are underappreciated and often misinterpreted—the most common mistakes being to describe them in ways that are uninformative (e.g., using arbitrary standards) or misleading (e.g.,Expand
How to Estimate and Interpret Various Effect Sizes
The present article presents a tutorial on how to estimate and interpret various effect sizes. The 5th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2001) described theExpand
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The consequences of using NHST vary for different areas of psychological research, depending principally on the sizes of the samples typically employed, and on the sizes of the population effectsExpand
Effect Size Estimation: Factors to Consider and Mistakes to Avoid
In recent years, there has been an increase in the reporting of effect size information. This paper (a) provides a review of commonly used effect size indices, (b) highlights some commonExpand
Effects of directionality of significance tests on the bias of accessible effect sizes.
  • L. Hsu
  • Medicine
  • Psychological methods
  • 2000
TLDR
The present article shows that when pi = 0, the small-N bias of accessible sample ESs is relatively small for delta < or = 0.2, and a minimum for the smallest population ES (viz., delta = 0). Expand
Effects of directionality of significance tests on the bias of accessible effect sizes.
The proportion of studies that use one-tailed statistical significance tests (pi) in a population of studies targeted by a meta-analysis can affect the bias of the sample effect sizes (sample ESs, orExpand
Without Supporting Statistical Evidence, Where Would Reported Measures of Substantive Importance Lead? To No Good Effect
Although estimating substantive importance (in the form of reporting effect sizes) has recently received widespread endorsement, its use has not been subjected to the same degree of scrutiny as hasExpand
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