When is self-organization used in biological systems?

@article{Seeley2002WhenIS,
  title={When is self-organization used in biological systems?},
  author={Thomas D Seeley},
  journal={The Biological bulletin},
  year={2002},
  volume={202 3},
  pages={
          314-8
        }
}
Self-organization, or decentralized control, is widespread in biological systems, including cells, organisms, and groups. It is not, however, the universal means of organization. I argue that a biological system will be self-organized when it possesses a large number of subunits, and these subunits lack either the communicational abilities or the computational abilities, or both, that are needed to implement centralized control. Such control requires a well informed and highly intelligent… CONTINUE READING
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