When does Information become Knowledge ?

  title={When does Information become Knowledge ?},
  author={H. Vivian Wyatt},
  • H. Wyatt
  • Published 14 January 1972
  • Education
  • Nature
By considering a specific example from molecular biology, Dr Wyatt examines the factors that determine the transformation of scientific information into scientific knowledge. 
The slow diffusion of the DNA paradigm into biology textbooks.
  • B. Gaster
  • Education, Biology
    Trends in biochemical sciences
  • 1990
From pneumonia to DNA: the research career of Oswald T. Avery.
  • O. Amsterdamska
  • Business
    Historical studies in the physical and biological sciences : HSPS
  • 1993
In this article, Amsterdamska uses Avery and his research on bacterial transformation as a case study to assess how different evidential contexts, institutional practices, and ideologies impact the
How history has blended
The experiments of Hershey and Chase, giving evidence that DNA is the genetic material, have been greatly simplified and modified in subsequent descriptions. Students are in danger of receiving a
Citation histories of scientific publications. The data sources
Some 160 data-containing studies on the citation aging of scientific literature are reviewed. The hitherto proposed time-distribution models are examined for relevant parameter values.
Oswald Avery, DNA, and the transformation of biology
Avery in Retrospect
In this response to Vivian Wyatt's article on the cool reception by molecular biologists to Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty's 1944 article, Olby critiqued much of the evidence and many of the primary
Regulating Information in Molecules: The Convention on Biological Diversity and Digital Sequence Information
The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity and its subsequent Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization
Reply to H. V. Wyatt
WYATT's inference1 that Avery's work on pneumococcal transformation was not well recognized by geneticists in the decade following his 1944 report2 is somewhat at odds with my own recollection and
Current Contents: Its Impact on Scientific Communication
AbstractBeginning in 1957, the literature explosion in science eliminated many personal subscriptions to journals and scientists with interdisciplinary interests demanded new approaches to current


Pilgrim Trust Lecture - The gene
  • H. Muller
  • Philosophy
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B - Biological Sciences
  • 1947
The gene has sometimes been described as a purely idealistic concept, divorced from real things, and again it has been denounced as wishful thinking on the part of those too mechanically minded. And
This paper presented by McCarty and Harriet Taylor at the June 1946 Cold Spring Harbor Symposium was part of his effort to bring his work on transformation to "some kind of reasonable conclusion" prior to his leaving the lab that July.
Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types; effect of desoxyribonuclease on the biological activity of the transforming substance.
It has been shown that extremely minute amounts of purified preparations of desoxyribonuclease are capable of bringing about the complete and irreversible inactivation of the transforming substance
Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation on pneumococcal types; an improved method for the isolation of the transforming substance and its application to Pneumococcus Types II, III, and VI.
In this second of two direct follow-ups to the 1944 paper on the Transforming Principle, Avery and McCarty provided further details of experimentation which showed that citrate (a salt or ester of
Oswald Theodore Avery and DNA
  • A. Coburn
  • History
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 1969
To one who had no scientific association with Avery's work it seems appropriate to place the following information on the record. I am motivated to make this report because repeatedly I note that
The study confirmed 65% (28 of 43) of the historical dependencies in the Asimov network by corresponding linkages established by citations, and found 31 citation connections which did not correspond to any historical dependencies noted in The Genetic Code.
Genes and biological enigmas.
of Silliman Lecture, Yale University. All rights reserved. This content downloaded from on Wed, 12 Oct 2016 04:41:06 UTC All use subject to http://about.jstor.org/terms 70 American
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
The determination in 1953 of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), with its two entwined helices and paired organic bases, was a tour de force in X-ray crystallography and opened the way for a deeper understanding of perhaps the most important biological process.
Genetic Control of Biochemical Reactions in Neurospora
In investigating the roles of genes, the physiological geneticist usually attempts to determine the physiological and biochemical bases of already known hereditary traits, establishing that many biochemical reactions are in fact controlled in specific ways by specific genes.
Essays on Nucleic Acids
Essays on Nucleic Acids ERWIN CHARGAFF. Pp. xii + 21 1, illustrated. Amsterdam, London and New York: Elsevier Publishing Co. I963. 45S. This series of essays consists of the texts of some of the