When did globalisation begin

  title={When did globalisation begin},
  author={Kevin Hjortsh{\o}j O’Rourke and Jeffrey Gale Williamson},
  journal={European Review of Economic History},
Some world historians attach globalisation ‘big bang’ significance to 1492 and 1498. Such scholars are on the side of Adam Smith who believed that these were the two most important events in recorded history. Other world historians insist that globalisation stretches back even earlier. There is a third view which argues that the world economy was fragmented and completely de-globalised before the early nineteenth century. None of these three competing views has distinguished explicitly… 

Once more: When did globalisation begin?

Is globalisation 50, 500 or 5,000 years old? Most economists take the ‘big bang’ view, and think globalisation happened very recently. Most historians also take the big bang view, but point to

The Cradle of Globalisation Venice's and Portugal's Contribution to a World Becoming Global

The opening up of transoceanic trade by Portuguese ships returning from India in 1499 has been a crucial step in a long lasting process of “globalization”, to which Portugal and Venice contributed

The Fruits of the Early Globalization: An Iberian Perspective

This volume reflects the increasing interest on the Early Globalization among historians and economic historians. By the term early globalization we refer to the centuries-long process that

Back to the Future: International Trade Costs and the Two Globalizations

This article provides an assessment of the nineteenth century trade globalization based on a systematic collection of bilateral trade statistics. Drawing on a new data set of more than 1.9 million

Business history and economic globalisation

Recent reviewers of the current state and future direction of business history have complained that, despite the growth of business history as a distinct academic discipline in recent decades, the

Explaining the Great Divergence

The boom in global history that The Great Divergence helped to stimulate has produced much new analysis of the path of economic change that preceded the Industrial Revolution. This can be used to

Path dependence, time lags and the birth of globalisation: A critique of O'Rourke and Williamson

In a recent issue of the European Review of Economic History (vol. 6, 2002, pp. 23–50), Kevin O'Rourke and Jeffrey Williamson dismiss claims by ‘World historians…[who] argue that globalisation

The Origins of Globalization: World Trade in the Making of the Global Economy, 1500-1800

For better or for worse, in recent times the rapid growth of international economic exchange has changed our lives. But when did this process of globalization begin, and what effects did it have on

Globalizing Operetta before the First World War

This essay brings together the history of operetta and the history of globalization. It argues that we cannot understand operetta without taking into account the theater industry, and—since this

West versus Far East: early globalization and the great divergence

This paper addresses two important topics in recent economic historiography: globalization and the great divergence. We first present a search for statistical evidence in the Far East of an “Early



Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350

In this portrait of world trade before the age of European Hegemony, Janet Abu-Lughod examines global commercial connections among a large number of cities between the years 1250 and 1350. The work

Reorient Global Economy in the Asian Age

Andre Gunder Frank asks us to re-orient our views away from Eurocentrism - to see the rise of the West as a mere blip in what was, and is again becoming, an Asia-centered world. In a bold challenge

Cross-cultural trade in world history

A single theme is pursued in this book - the trade between peoples of differing cultures through world history. Extending from the ancient world to the coming of the commercial revolution, Professor

The Political Economy of Merchant Empires: Transport Costs and Long-Range Trade, 1300–1800: Was There a European “Transport Revolution” in the Early Modern Era?

INTRODUCTION I t is now a commonplace among economic historians to argue that long-distance trade has been overemphasized by students of the early modern period. The international economy was poorly


century and began exporting goods to Europe as well as to other parts of Asia. In a detailed analysis of the trading operations of European corporate enterprises such as the English and Dutch East

Cross-Cultural Interaction and Periodization in World History.

Periodization ranks among the more elusive tasks of historical Scholarship. As practicing historians well know, the identification of coherent periods of history involves much more than the simple

Mercantilism as Strategic Trade Policy: The Anglo-Dutch Rivalry for the East India Trade

  • D. Irwin
  • Economics, History
    Journal of Political Economy
  • 1991
This paper interprets seventeenth-century mercantilism in light of recent theories of strategic trade policy. Long-distance international commerce during the mercantilist period was undertaken

Freight costs in the English East India trade 1601–1657

Abstract Uncertainty about the actual costs of the East India trade in the early seventeenth century has often led to exaggerated ideas of the risks and profits associated with the trade. This lack

The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century

List of Illustrations Acknowledgments Quotation Credits Prologue to the 2011 Edition Introduction: On the study of social change 1. Medieval prelude 2. The new European division of labor: c.

Ocean Freight Rates and Economic Development 1730-1913

  • D. North
  • History, Economics
    The Journal of Economic History
  • 1958
Revolutionary developments in transport have been an essential feature of the rapiddevelopments in transportgrowth of the past two centuries. Reduction in the cost of carriage has enabled