When did Neanderthals and modern humans diverge?

@article{Beerli2003WhenDN,
  title={When did Neanderthals and modern humans diverge?},
  author={Peter Beerli and Scott V. Edwards},
  journal={Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues},
  year={2003},
  volume={11}
}
The availability of sequences from the mtDNA hypervariable region I and II of a specimen of the Neanderthal,1,2 Homo neanderthalensis, permits estimation of the time of divergence of Neanderthals and modern humans. Based on substitution rates derived from comparison of human and chimpanzee, Krings et al. provided an estimate of 550–690 KY1 and 317–741 KY2 before present for the split between the Neanderthal and contemporary human mtDNA. These estimates are dates for the split of the genes, and… 

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