When are actively balanced biphasic (‘Lilly’) stimulating pulses necessary in a neurological prosthesis? I Historical background; Pt resting potential;Q studies

@article{Donaldson2006WhenAA,
  title={When are actively balanced biphasic (‘Lilly’) stimulating pulses necessary in a neurological prosthesis? I Historical background; Pt resting potential;Q studies},
  author={N. de N. Donaldson and P. E. K. Donaldson},
  journal={Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing},
  year={2006},
  volume={24},
  pages={41-49}
}
Actively balanced (‘Lilly’) stimulating current waveforms are generally considered to give very ‘safe’ stimulation. Although this is perfectly true, the specification of the necessary waveform generators in neurological prostheses demands additional complexity, and probably additional expense and development time as well. The paper and its companion enquire whether the use of simple, passively charge-balanced stimulating pulses is equally safe, provided the stimulation parameters and circuitry… 
When are actively balanced biphasic (‘Lilly’) stimulating pulses necessary in a neurological prosthesis? II pH changes; noxious products; electrode corrosion; discussion
TLDR
It is concluded that, in respect of safe deliverable charge density per pulse at the electrode, release of noxious products and stimulating effectiveness, simple pulses need give no worse performance; in some circumstances they may give better.
Five valuable functions of blocking capacitors in stimulators
TLDR
The authors believe that the blocking capacitor should not be eliminated from the stimulator output stage design unless the alternative passes a stringent safety analysis.
neuroBi: A Highly Configurable Neurostimulator for a Retinal Prosthesis and Other Applications
TLDR
A system is presented which can deliver charge-balanced, constant-current biphasic pulses, with widely adjustable parameters, to arbitrary configurations of output electrodes, and is shown to be effective in eliciting visual percepts in a patient with approximately 20 years of light perception vision only due to retinitis pigmentosa.
Offset prediction for charge-balanced stimulus waveforms.
TLDR
An equivalent electrical model of the electrode-electrolyte impedance based on the electrode's surface chemistry during psuedo-bipolar stimulation conditions is developed and there was a 92% reduction in the pre-pulse potential after a pulse train with this new waveform design when compared to stimulation with conventional biphasic waveforms.
Neural Interfaces for Implanted Stimulators
TLDR
This chapter looks into several safety issues, especially on the parts near the stimulation interface, i.
An Implantable Versatile Electrode-Driving ASIC for Chronic Epidural Stimulation in Rats
TLDR
The design and testing of an electrode driving application specific integrated circuit intended for epidural spinal cord electrical stimulation in rats and its suitability to drive a passive epidural 12-electrode array in saline has also been demonstrated.
A Stimulator ASIC Featuring Versatile Management for Vestibular Prostheses
TLDR
This paper presents a multichannel stimulator ASIC for an implantable vestibular prosthesis which features versatile stimulation management which allows fine setting of the parameters for biphasic stimulation pulses and a technique to reduce the data rate to the stimulator.
On the Design of an Efficient Inductive Wireless Power Transfer for Passive Neurostimulation Systems
TLDR
A new wireless power transfer circuit is presented for the design of an efficient system to wirelessly deliver charge-balanced biphasic waveforms through passive electrodes for transcorneal electrical stimulation.
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References

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When are actively balanced biphasic (‘Lilly’) stimulating pulses necessary in a neurological prosthesis? II pH changes; noxious products; electrode corrosion; discussion
TLDR
It is concluded that, in respect of safe deliverable charge density per pulse at the electrode, release of noxious products and stimulating effectiveness, simple pulses need give no worse performance; in some circumstances they may give better.
Electrochemical Considerations for Safe Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System with Platinum Electrodes
TLDR
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Electrical stimulation with Pt electrodes: Trace analysis for dissolved platinum and other dissolved electrochemical products.
TLDR
The aim of this study has been to establish the maximum charge density that can be passed during each half of a biphasic stimulation pulse.
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The polarisation impedance of the platinum electrode was measured in physiological saline over six decades of frequencies down to 1 mHz and demonstrated the validity of Schwan’s limit law of linearity at very low frequencies.
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The impedance of small platinum electrodes has been measured as a function of frequency. In the range of 0·1 Hz to 10 kHz, this impedance Z can be described accurately as K/(i2πf)m. The value of K is
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  • J. Weinman, J. Mahler
  • Materials Science, Medicine
    Medical electronics and biological engineering
  • 2006
TLDR
The paper stresses the importance of a proper understanding of the electrical behaviour of a metal electrode by an appropriate method, and the results of such an investigation into a platinum, a tungsten and two stainless-steel electrodes reported.
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In a pervious communication a study has been made of the potential changes which occur during the discharge of small quantities of electricity at metallic cathodes in an acid electrolyte. The
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