When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat

@article{Aronson1999WhenWM,
  title={When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat},
  author={Joshua Aronson and Michael J. Lustina and Catherine Good and Kelli A. Keough and Claude M. Steele and Joseph L. Brown},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Social Psychology},
  year={1999},
  volume={35},
  pages={29-46}
}
Abstract Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural minorities can undermine the standardized test performance and school outcomes of members of these groups. This research tested two assumptions about the necessary conditions for stereotype threat to impair intellectual test performance. First, we tested the hypothesis that to interfere with… 

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