When Slaves were Nobles: The Shamsî Bandagân in the Early Delhi Sultanate

  title={When Slaves were Nobles: The Shams{\^i} Bandag{\^a}n in the Early Delhi Sultanate},
  author={Sunil Kumar},
  journal={Studies in History},
  pages={23 - 52}
The ubiquitous presence of military slaves has been a distinguishing feature of the armies and the political systems of the Abbâsid Caliphs and the succeeding Sultanates in Islamdom. In the middle ages, the Seljuqid wazir Nizam al-Mulk Tusi and the scholar Ibn Khaldun had separately commented on the virtues of the system of ’recruiting’ slaves to consolidate the political strength of a monarch. Ibn K_haldun had astutely noticed that military slaves (ghilminlmamiliklbandagdn; singular… Expand


There have been several interesting efforts to account for the 'forty' notables of Iltutmish. The most imaginative exercise is by Khurram Qadir
  • Journal of Central Asia
  • 1981
252-85; and 'Norms of Comportment among Imperial Mughal Officers
  • Kingship and Authority in South Asia
  • 1978
Aziz Ahmad incorrectly cited Habib's estimate of the number of c h ihilgânî as more than one thousand. Recently Irfan Habib, 'Formation of the Sultanate ruling class
  • The early Turkish nucleus in India', Turcica, Revue d'etudes Turques
  • 1977
Turk and Hindu: A poetical image and its application to historical fact
  • Fourth Giorgio Levi Della Vida Biennial Conference
  • 1975
The Delhi edition of the Faw&acirc
  • 1966
19: 'ta âkhir-i 'umr dast az tashtdârî na-d&acirc
    62 Jûzjân&icirc
      Formation of the Sultanate ruling class'; ' Iqt&acirc
      • 'The early Turkish Sultans')
      Habibi read the title of the slave as Bat (BT?) K h &acirc