When Positive Stereotypes Threaten Intellectual Performance: The Psychological Hazards of “Model Minority” Status

  title={When Positive Stereotypes Threaten Intellectual Performance: The Psychological Hazards of “Model Minority” Status},
  author={Sapna Cheryan and Galen V. Bodenhausen},
  journal={Psychological Science},
  pages={399 - 402}
Asian-American women's performance on a test of quantitative skill was studied as a function of whether their Asian, female, or individual identity was salient at the time of testing. In previous research, ethnicity salience was found to result in enhanced math performance among Asian women. However, the investigators relied on a subtle manipulation of ethnicity salience that likely did not invoke concerns about group reputation nor make salient the common cultural stereotypes concerning Asians… 

Figures from this paper

How Stereotypes Stifle Performance Potential

In academic and organizational domains, performance measures are often used to assess achievement or aptitude. When certain groups of people systematically underperform on such measures, a common

Stereotype threat: The effect of expectancy on performance.

The goal of this study was to investigate to role of expectancy as a potential mediator of performance deficits under stereotype threat. In Experiment 1, female students were assigned to one of three

Stereotype Threat, Inquiring About Test Takers' Ethnicity and Gender, and Standardized Test Performance1

Steele and Aronson (1995) found that the performance of Black research participants on ability test items portrayed as a problem-solving task, in laboratory experiments, was affected adversely when

Stereotype Threat on Asian American College Students

The concept of stereotype threat has been routinely applied to the study of African American students to measure their academic performance when faced with the potential of confirming negative

Stereotype threat: When minority members underperform

This chapter provides a brief overview of research on stereotype threat, and considers whether this phenomenon is specific to minority groups (defined as low status groups), or whether similar

Teachers' Stereotypes of Asian, Black, and White Students.

This research uses two different measurement operations to examine contemporary stereotypes of Asians, Blacks, and Whites held by an ethnically diverse sample of teachers. Data were drawn from a

Identical applicant but different outcomes: The impact of gender versus race salience in hiring

People belong to multiple social groups, which may have conflicting stereotypic associations. A manager evaluating an Asian woman for a computer programming job could be influenced by negative gender

When compliments fail to flatter: American individualism and responses to positive stereotypes.

How cultural self-construals inform the way people interpret and respond to being the target of positive stereotypes is demonstrated, by bringing together research on stereotypes from the target's perspective with research on culture.

Why they leave: the impact of stereotype threat on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math and engineering majors

This paper examines the effects of group performance anxiety on the attrition of women and minorities from science, math, and engineering majors. While past research has relied primarily on the

Blatant Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance: Self-Handicapping as a Strategic Means to Cope with Obtrusive Negative Performance Expectations

Research on the effect of stereotype threat has consistently shown that a reduction of stereotype threat due to decreased salience of negative stereotypic expectations in testing situations results



Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.

The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic.

Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience and Shifts in Quantitative Performance

Recent studies have documented that performance in a domain is hindered when individuals feel that a sociocultural group to which they belong is negatively stereotyped in that domain. We report that

A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance.

  • C. Steele
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1997
Research shows that this threat dramatically depresses the standardized test performance of women and African Americans who are in the academic vanguard of their groups, that it causes disidentification with school, and that practices that reduce this threat can reduce these negative effects.

When White Men Can't Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat

Abstract Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural

Stereotype Threat and Women's Math Performance

Abstract When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicament stereotype threat and hypothesize that

Extending the Concept of Stereotype Threat to Social Class: The Intellectual Underperformance of Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds

Students from poorer families perform worse on intellectual tasks than do other students. The authors tested the stereotype threat hypothesis as a possible explanation for this difference. Students

Asian Americans as Model Minorities? A Look at Their Academic Performance

The image of Asian-Americans as "model minorities" is driven, in part, by the high academic achievement of Asian-American children. To evaluate this characterization, I use the National Education

Great Expectations: The Negative Consequences of Falling Short1

The present study shows conditions under which a positive stereotypic belief–Asians are good in mathematics–can have negative consequences. Participants graded a poorly performed mathematical

A Collective Self-Esteem Scale: Self-Evaluation of One's Social Identity

Social identity theory as developed by Tajfel and Turner argues that there are two distinct aspects of the self-concept: personal identity and social identity (in American terminology, collective

Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability in intellectually talented preadolescents: Their nature, effects, and possible causes

  • C. Benbow
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1988
Abstract Several hundred thousand intellectually talented 12-to 13-year-olds have been tested nationwide over the past 16 years with the mathematics and verbal sections of the Scholastic Aptitude