When Does the Watchdog Bark? Conditions of Aggressive Questioning in Presidential News Conferences

@article{Clayman2006WhenDT,
  title={When Does the Watchdog Bark? Conditions of Aggressive Questioning in Presidential News Conferences},
  author={Steven E. Clayman and John Heritage and Marc N. Elliott and Laurie L. McDonald},
  journal={American Sociological Review},
  year={2006},
  volume={72},
  pages={23 - 41}
}
In theories of the journalism-state relationship, the watchdog model of journalism competes with other models emphasizing either subservient or oppositional relations. Since actual journalistic practice is circumstantially variable, this study isolates the social conditions associated with aggressive journalism. Data are drawn from presidential news conferences from 1953 to 2000, and the focus is on the aggressiveness of the questions asked therein. Through multivariate models, four sets of… 

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