When Can We Call a System Self-Organizing?

  title={When Can We Call a System Self-Organizing?},
  author={Carlos Gershenson and Francis Heylighen},
We do not attempt to provide yet another definition of self-organization, but explore the conditions under which we can model a system as self-organizing. [] Key Method We discuss ontological issues we face when studying self-organizing systems, and analyse when designing and controlling artificial self-organizing systems is useful. We conclude that self-organization is a way of observing systems, not an absolute class of systems.
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