Apparent motion of monocular stimuli in different depth planes with lateral head movements
We examined effects of binocular occlusion, binocular camouflage, and vergence-induced disparity cues on the perceived depth between two objects when two stimuli are presented to one eye and a single stimulus to the other (Wheatstone-Panum limiting case). The perceived order and magnitude of the depth were examined in two experimental conditions: (1) The stimulus was presented on the temporal side (occlusion condition) and (2) the nasal side (camouflage condition) of the stimulus pair on one retina so as to fuse with the single stimulus on the other retina. In both conditions, the separation between the stimulus pair presented to one eye was systematically varied. Experiment 1, with 16 observers, showed that the fused object was seen in front of the nonfused object in the occlusion condition and was seen at the same distance as the nonfused object in the camouflage condition. The perceived depth between the two objects was constant and did not depend on the separation of the stimulus pair presented to one eye. Experiment 2, with 45 observers, showed that the disparity induced by vergence mainly determined the perceived depth, and the depth magnitude increased as the separation of the stimulus pair was made wider. The results suggest that (1) occlusion provides depth-order information but not depth-magnitude information, (2) camouflage provides neither depth-order nor depth-magnitude information, and (3) vergence-induced disparity provides both order and magnitude information.