Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors as nutritional activators of innate immunity.

  title={Wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors as nutritional activators of innate immunity.},
  author={Detlef B Schuppan and Victor F. Zevallos},
  journal={Digestive diseases},
  volume={33 2},
While the central role of an adaptive, T cell-mediated immune response to certain gluten peptides in celiac disease is well established, the innate immune response to wheat proteins remains less well defined. We identified wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), but not gluten, as major stimulators of innate immune cells (dendritic cells>macrophages>monocytes), while intestinal epithelial cells were nonresponsive. ATIs bind to and activate the CD14-MD2 toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex. This… CONTINUE READING
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