Pulmonary function tests remain the best method to assess underlying bronchial inflammation, particularly distal airway flow. However, these tests are limited in their ability to differentiate treatment-reversible small airway obstruction from definitive remodeling related to a viral infection. The increased availability of the exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FeNO) measurement means that this method is accessible and attractive. In spite of a number of studies, mainly in adults, its use in the management of asthma needs more investigation. Threshold values that permit optimum management are poorly defined, and strategies based on variations of FeNO do not result in reduction of the number of exacerbations, although they do permit better control of drug use and better control of inflammation. Sputum eosinophil counts are of interest for the prevention of exacerbations, although while not well validated they may be useful in some asthmatic children. Also, they require an experienced cytology laboratory. Finally, recent data on bronchial biopsies in children with difficult-to-treat asthma will be summarized.