What makes narcissists bloom? A framework for research on the etiology and development of narcissism

  title={What makes narcissists bloom? A framework for research on the etiology and development of narcissism},
  author={Sander Thomaes and Brad J. Bushman and Bram Orobio de Castro and Hedy Stegge},
  journal={Development and Psychopathology},
  pages={1233 - 1247}
Abstract Narcissism is a dynamic form of personality characterized by a pervasive sense of grandiosity and self-importance, and by a need to obtain continuous self-validation from others. Very little is known about its etiology and development. What factors (e.g., temperament, parenting experiences) and processes (e.g., transactions between these factors over time) cause some children to become more narcissistic than others? When does narcissism first emerge, and how does narcissism develop… 
The Effects of Parenting Style on the Development of Narcissism
Investigating biological, developmental and social learning causal factors of Narcissistic Personality Disorder are explored in this study with an emphasis on the effects of permissive, authoritarian
When Narcissus Was a Boy: Origins, Nature, and Consequences of Childhood Narcissism
Not all positive self-views are alike. Developmen- tal researchers increasingly recognize that it is important to distinguish between accurate, well-balanced positive self- views and inflated,
Parents’ Socialization of Narcissism in Children
Research on childhood narcissism has gained momentum over the past years. Narcissism emerges and develops from childhood onward. One main focus of research has centered around the question of how
The Etiology of Narcissism: A Review of Behavioral Genetic Studies
A great deal of research has delved into the etiology of narcissism via behavioral genetic methodologies in recent years. These studies have established that genetic factors contribute substantially
New Fathers with Narcissistic Personality Disorders: When Dad Becomes Too Self-Absorbed
Prevalence estimates for narcissistic personality disorder, based on the DSM-4 definition, range anywhere between 0% and 6.2% in community samples. Of those, it appears that there are also
'Narcissism Creep?': Evidence for Age-Related Differences in Narcissism in the New Zealand General Population
International research has suggested that levels of narcissism (excessive belief in self-worth, associated with excessive self-promotion and enhancement) vary across the lifespan, such that younger
[Origins and evaluation of youth narcissism].
The relation between narcissism, self-esteem and emotional, and behavioral problems in children is outlined and measures for the assessment of narcissistic traits in children and adolescents are presented.
Dimensions of Adolescent Narcissism
Abstract. Research with adolescents has noted that narcissism dimensions (e.g., non-pathological, grandiose, vulnerable) are often interrelated but have differential associations with indicators of
An examination of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in adults, adolescents, and children
William James (1890) provided a simple definition of self-esteem: success divided by pretension. Therefore, to raise self-esteem I need to either lower my pretentions or increase my achievements.
The Importance of Status: Social Consequences of Narcissism in Early Adolescence
Six hypotheses regarding the association between narcissism (i.e., a personality trait characterized by a grandiose sense of self and a pervasive need for this supposed superiority be validated and


Parenting narcissus: what are the links between parenting and narcissism?
Parental warmth was associated positively and monitoring was associated negatively with both types of narcissism and psychological control was positively associated with narcissism scores from which trait self-esteem variance had been removed.
Two faces of narcissism.
  • P. Wink
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1991
A principal-components analysis of 6 MMPI narcissism scales resulted in 2 orthogonal factors, 1 implying Vulnerability-Sensitivity and the other Grandiosity-Exhibitionism, although unrelated to each other.
The Making of a Narcissist
In discussing the etiology of Narcissistic Personality Disorder, faulty parenting or disturbed object relations is a common causal theme in most writings. However, the question remains as to its
Development and Validation of the Childhood Narcissism Scale
The CNS provides researchers a convenient tool for measuring narcissism in children and young adolescents with strong preliminary psychometric characteristics and suggests that childhood narcissism has similar psychological and interpersonal correlates as adult narcissism.
Narcissism and Childhood Recollections: A Quantitative Test of Psychoanalytic Predictions
A suppression relationship was detected between these predictors: the effects of each were stronger when modeled together than separately; this combination of childhood experiences may help to explain the paradoxical combination of grandiosity and fragility in adult narcissism.
Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism.
Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies and theoretical efforts to link narcissism with inadequate parenting may have merit and may deserve additional research attention.
Narcissism as Addiction to Esteem
Morf and Rhodewalt (this issue) provide a masterful summary of the research literature on narcissism. In their view, narcissists are highly motivated to gain the admiration of others, and their
Normal and pathological narcissism in adolescence.
  • E. Bleiberg
  • Psychology
    American journal of psychotherapy
  • 1994
Examining the unfolding of self-esteem regulation against a developmental background, the author proposes a framework to differentiate normal adolescent vulnerability from pathological narcissistic regulation and narcissistic psychopathology.
Impulsivity and the Self-Defeating Behavior of Narcissists
  • S. Vazire, D. Funder
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 2006
This work presents a meta-analysis demonstrating a strong positive relationship between narcissism and impulsivity, and reinterpretation argues that impulsivity provides a more parsimonious explanation for at least some of narcissists' self-defeating behavior than do existing models.