What is the impact of coexistence of hepatolithiasis on cholangiocarcinoma?

  title={What is the impact of coexistence of hepatolithiasis on cholangiocarcinoma?},
  author={Cheng-Chi Lee and Chun-Ying Wu and And Gran‐Hum Chen},
  journal={Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology},
Background: Hepatolithiasis is a well‐known etiology of cholangiocarcinoma. However, whether or not hepatolithiasis influences the presentation of cholangiocarcinoma is not very clear. To help clarify this, we conducted the present study to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma with hepatolithiasis. As well, we made a comparison between the presence and absence of hepatolithiasis in patients with cholangiocarcinoma to determine the impact of hepatolithiasis. 

Cholangiocarcinoma in a 24-year-old woman with hepatolithiasis.

A case of cholangiocarcinoma is presented in a 24-year-old woman who presented with the recurrent cholANGitis from hepatolithiasis who had multiple stones in an atrophic left lobe of the liver.

Endoscopic Evaluation and Management of Cholangiocarcinoma.

CT findings of cholangiocarcinoma associated with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis.

Cholangiocarcinoma associated with recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is predominantly located in the atrophic hepatic lobes and in the hepatic lobe of biliary calculi and is associated with the narrowing or obliteration of the portal vein.

Hepatolithiasis and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A review.

Surgical resection is recommended in cases of single lobe hepatolithiasis with atrophy, uncontrolled stricture, symptom duration of more than 10 years, and long history of biliary-enteric anastomosis, and it is not yet clear whether hepatic resection can reduce the occurrence of subsequent HL-CCA.

Hepatolithiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma: results from a multi-institutional national database on a case series of 23 patients.

  • A. GuglielmiA. Ruzzenente C. Iacono
  • Medicine
    European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • 2014

Recurrent Pyogenic Cholangitis as an Unusual Indication for Liver Transplantation in a Center of a Western Country

Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis is a chronic infection characterized by intrahepatic biliary stones and strictures and two cases of RCP in Chinese patients treated with liver transplantation are reported.

Comparison of concomitant and subsequent cholangiocarcinomas associated with hepatolithiasis: Clinical implications.

C-CCA has better outcomes than S- CCA and the Kaplan-Meier curves corresponding to each group demonstrated better survival outcomes, and the rates of overall and disease-related mortality in both groups approached statistical significance.

Epidemiology of Cholangiocarcinoma and Gallbladder Carcinoma

O Ongoing research efforts are focusing on the multifactorial contributions of environmental toxins, diet, obesity, and molecular mechanisms of CCA and GBCA development to improve early diagnosis and develop targeted therapies to complement surgical resection.

Incidence and Prognosis of Subsequent Cholangiocarcinoma in Patients with Hepatic Resection for Bile Duct Stones

Subsequent CCA developed in 2% of the patients with hepatic resection for benign BDS until 10 years and was associated with poorer prognoses than concomitant CCA, and future studies focused on the long-term surveillance for CCA in such patients are needed.

Risk Factors for Cholangiocarcinoma After Initial Hepatectomy for Intrahepatic Stones

Patients who underwent aggressive hepatectomy and had ELR = SAS had better outcomes than those with ELR-<-SAS, however, patients withELR <–SAS and bilateral intrahepatic or residual stones should be monitored more carefully for high-risk factors of S-CCA.



Cholangiocarcinoma as related to chronic intrahepatic cholangitis and hepatolithiasis. Case report and review of the literature.

The possible pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinomas is discussed and the importance of endoscopic retrograde cholANGiography in the diagnosis of this malignancy is emphasized.

A reappraisal of cholangiocarcinoma in patient with hepatolithiasis

During the past 3 years, an increased incidence of patients with hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma was noted.

Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Possible etiologic significance

Three cases of primary bile duct carcinomas (cholangiocarcinomas) were found among 61 cases of hepatolithiasis, and hyperplasia of the columnar cells was often present.

Cholangiocarcinoma in Hepatolithiasis

The authors' observations suggest that whenever intrahepatic stones are encountered in patients over 50 years of age with a long history of recurrent cholangitis and intractable pain, further examination incuding echo-guided aspiration cytology, liver scanning, and peritoneoscopy should be performed to rule out a coexisting Cholangiocarcinoma.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in hepatolithiasis: A frequently overlooked disease

Five cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were found among 101 cases of hepatolithiasis, and an intraoperative frozen‐section examination should be considered under the following circumstances: whitish nodular mass over liver, mucinous substance within bile duct, and enlarged, firm lymph nodes clustered along the hepatic arteries and/or celiac arteries.

Impact of Concomitant Hepatolithiasis on Patients with Peripheral Cholangiocarcinoma

The presence of hepatolithiasis hindered an exact diagnosis of underlying cholangiocarcinoma preoperatively, precipitated biliary sepsis which affected resectability, and increased postoperative morbidity, and Hepatolithiasis per se did not influence the long-term survival.

Are hepatolithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma aetiologically related?

It is speculated that chronic proliferative cholangitis in the presence of hepatolithiasis can undergo progressive changes to atypical epithelial hyperplasia which may in turn progress to Cholangiocarcinoma.

Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma

Patients with hepatolithiasis should be kept in mind if there are high levels of CEA, if the location of the stones is classified as type I-L, or if portal veins cannot be seen on portograms, and liver resection should be considered because there may be undiagnosed cholangiocarcinoma.

Clinicopathologic spectrum of resected extraductal mass‐forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

This study describes the clinicopathologic variety of the extraductal mass‐forming type of CC, the mode of tumor growth of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, which varies considerably from patient to patient.

Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (cholangiocellular carcinoma): Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment

Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer known to have an unfavourable prognosis compared with that of hepatocellular carcinoma, and conventional surgery remains the only effective treatment, even for patients with advanced‐stage tumours.