What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review

@article{Jeffries2012WhatIT,
  title={What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review},
  author={Fiona W Jeffries and Paul Davis},
  journal={Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy},
  year={2012},
  volume={41},
  pages={290 - 300}
}
  • F. Jeffries, P. Davis
  • Published 29 October 2012
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Background: Controversy continues to exist regarding how EMDR works and whether its mechanisms differ from those at work in standard exposure techniques. Aims: To investigate first whether eye movement bilateral stimulation is an essential component of EMDR and, second, the current status of its theoretical basis. Method: A systematic search for relevant articles was conducted in databases using standard methodology. Results: Clinical research evidence is contradictory as to how essential EMs… 
How Does Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy Work? A Systematic Review on Suggested Mechanisms of Action
TLDR
A thorough systematic search for studies that examined the mechanism of action of EMDR demonstrated a reasonable empirical support for the working memory hypothesis and for the physiological changes associated with successful EMDR therapy.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) was developed in the late 1980s as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Since then the therapy has been shown to be efficacious for this
A Comparison of Dual Attention, Eye Movements, and Exposure Only during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial
TLDR
Exposure in combination with an explicit external focus of attention leads to larger PTSD symptom reduction than exposure alone, and eye movements have no advantage compared to visually fixating on a nonmoving hand.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as Treatment for Combat-Related PTSD: A Meta-Analysis
Although the symptom presentation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general and military population is very similar, combat-related PTSD is typically thought to be more severe due to
The Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Indonesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
TLDR
Within a clinical sample of PTSD patients in Indonesia, both EMD and retrieval-only was associated with reductions in symptoms of PTSD, anxiety and depression, and improvements in quality of life, although EMs did not add to the efficacy of the treatments.
The Use of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
TLDR
This literature review examines previous research that assesses the therapeutic benefits of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in individuals with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to stimulate further investigation into the merits of EMDR.
An animal model of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
TLDR
The elaboration of an animal model of EMDR would permit the use of more invasive methods of investigation which could provide new and more precise data on the subject.
EMDR to Treat Functional Neurological Disorder: A Review
TLDR
EMDR is potentially a useful treatment of FND, but further research, including controlled trials, is required, and the authors propose that EMDR could be useful in treating patients with FND and comorbid PTSD, as well as patients without comorbrid PTSD.
EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING AS A PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC APPROACH
  • D. Ivanova
  • Psychology
    Problems of Psychology in the 21st Century
  • 2018
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is empirically validated psychotherapeutic approach, which uses Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model. EMDR can be applied when working with
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing is a new and controversial cognitive–behavioural treatment technique that combines cognitive processing and exposure methodology to treat conditioned
Eye Movement Desensitisation Treatment Utilises the Positive Visceral Element of the Investigatory Reflex to Inhibit the Memories of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Theoretical Analysis
TLDR
It is proposed that EMDR is rapidly effective because it is a clinical method of Pavlovian conditioning by which the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex can be paired with clinically-induced noxious memories to remove their negative affect.
EMDR Works . . . But How? Recent Progress in the Search for Treatment Mechanisms
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a highly scrutinized but efficacious psychotherapy commonly used in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite much theorizing and
EMDR 12 years after its introduction: past and future research.
  • F. Shapiro
  • Psychology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 2002
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) was one of the first treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to be evaluated in controlled research and has to date been empirically
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta-analysis.
TLDR
EMDR appears to be no more effective than other exposure techniques, and evidence suggests that the eye movements integral to the treatment, and to its name, are unnecessary.
Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): information processing in the treatment of trauma.
TLDR
An overview of the findings of 20 controlled-outcome studies and Shapiro's Adaptive Information Processing model is provided, which posits that pathology results when distressing experiences are processed inadequately and hypothesizes that EMDR accelerates information processing, resulting in the adaptive resolution of traumatic memories.
EMDR: a putative neurobiological mechanism of action.
  • R. Stickgold
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of clinical psychology
  • 2002
TLDR
It is proposed that the repetitive redirecting of attention in EMDR induces a neurobiological state, similar to that of REM sleep, which is optimally configured to support the cortical integration of traumatic memories into general semantic networks.
Adult PTSD and Its Treatment With EMDR: A Review of Controversies, Evidence, and Theoretical Knowledge
This article provides an overview of selective issues relating to adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). The article
Does EMDR work? And if so, why?: a critical review of controlled outcome and dismantling research.
Eye movement desentitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of an emerging therapy
TLDR
The evidence in support of EMDR is of limited quality but results are encouraging for this inexpensive, simple therapy, and larger samples with longer periods of follow-up are warranted.
...
...