What is the El Niño–Southern Oscillation?

@article{Scaife2019WhatIT,
  title={What is the El Ni{\~n}o–Southern Oscillation?},
  author={Adam A. Scaife and Eric Guilyardi and M. Cain and Alyssa Gilbert},
  journal={Weather},
  year={2019},
  volume={74}
}
The strongest impacts are experienced by those countries near the tropical Pacific origin of ENSO. Changes in surface temperature, wind and moisture affect rainfall intensity and patterns, which can lead to extreme events such as flooding and drought. During an El Niño event, Peru, Ecuador and southeastern parts of South America receive heavy rainfall. In northern Brazil, drier conditions or even drought may result. Indonesia, South Asia and parts of Australia are also more likely to experience… 

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