What is political incivility?

  title={What is political incivility?},
  author={Robin Stryker and Bethany A. Conway and John Taylor Danielson},
  journal={Communication Monographs},
  pages={535 - 556}
ABSTRACT Using 23 novel indicators and a 1,000+ sample representative of a full undergraduate population we examined: how much consensus there was about perceptions of the incivility/civility of various categories of speech/behavior; and whether political incivility is a unidimensional or multidimensional latent construct. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest perceived political incivility is a multidimensional construct. Insulting utterances, deception, and behaviors tending to shut down… 

Replication Note: What is Political Incivility?

Because political incivility is so consequential and those consequences depend on observers’ perceptions, we must know what Americans perceive as uncivil. Stryker, Conway, and Danielson (2016)

Searching for the Dimensions of Today’s Political Incivility

Incivility in public discourse is a central concern for scholars and citizens alike. However, the definitions of the concept offered by scholars are dissimilar and difficult to compare. This

Race, Gender, and the Politics of Incivility: How Identity Moderates Perceptions of Uncivil Discourse

  • S. R. Gubitz
  • Sociology
    The Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Politics
  • 2022
Many worry that uncivil discourse can undermine democratic processes. Yet, what exactly does it mean for discourse to be uncivil? I argue that there is systematic variation in perceptions of

Partisan Bias of Perceived Incivility and its Political Consequences: Evidence from Survey Experiments in Hong Kong

Exposure to presumably uncivil content is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for perceptions of incivility and thus could lead to differential political consequences. To examine the

How Incivility on Partisan Media (De)Polarizes the Electorate

Partisan media—typically characterized by incivility—has become a defining element of the American political communication environment. While scholars have explored the consequences of partisan media

How Moral Value Commitments Shape Responses to Political Civility and Incivility

Citizen exposure to political incivility is increasing. Studies have found heterogeneous responses to incivility, but we know little about what drives this variation. This study investigates whether

The strategic use of incivility in contemporary politics. The case of the 2018 Italian general election on Facebook

ABSTRACT The study addresses central issues in contemporary politics in response to growing concern about the impoverishment of political discourse that has become increasingly uncivil. In particular

Is Context the Key? The (Non-)Differential Effects of Mediated Incivility in Three European Countries

There is a worry that serious forms of political conflict, in particular, uncivil behavior of politicians, increases political cynicism and demobilizes the public. Despite the close relation of

Descriptive and Injunctive Incivility Norms in Political Campaigns: Differences Across Behavior Type, Candidate Gender, and Candidate Party Position

Despite evidence that a majority of people in the United States say that they want more civil politics, candidates still use incivility strategically during campaigns. Distinguishing between

Does a Speaker’s (In)formal Role in News Media Shape Perceptions of Political Incivility?

ABSTRACT We used a media-focused vignette experiment to test how speaker role and norm-violation level influenced perceived incivility, including respondents’ age, gender, and partisanship as



Beyond Negativity: The Effects of Incivility on the Electorate

There is much concern among pundits and political observers that incivility undermines our electoral process. Yet we have little evidence that actually documents whether incivility has such

The New Videomalaise: Effects of Televised Incivility on Political Trust

Does incivility in political discourse have adverse effects on public regard for politics? If so, why? In this study we present a theory suggesting that when viewers are exposed to televised

Online and Uncivil? Patterns and Determinants of Incivility in Newspaper Website Comments

Incivility in public discussions has received increasing attention from academic and popular commentators in recent years. In an effort to better understand the nature and determinants of such

Living in an age of online incivility: examining the conditional indirect effects of online discussion on political flaming

Communication scholars have examined the potential pitfalls and rewards associated with the ability to communicate in online spaces. We continue in that line of research by proposing a mediated

Rude Democracy: Civility and Incivility in American Politics

Rude Democracy: Civility and Incivility in American Politics. Susan Herbst. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2010. 216 pp. $24.95 pbk. Like an exciting classroom discussion, Rude Democracy

From Incivility to Outrage: Political Discourse in Blogs, Talk Radio, and Cable News

Most research on incivility in American politics focuses on its effects on citizens' political attitudes and behaviors, in spite of remarkably little data on the extent to which political discourse

Effects of “In-Your-Face” Television Discourse on Perceptions of a Legitimate Opposition

How do Americans acquire the impression that their political foes have some understandable basis for their views, and thus represent a legitimate opposition? How do they come to believe that

Politics as the Mobilization of Anger

In most academic research on politics, emotions are deemed important only to the realm of subjects or citizens, not to power. Emotions are presented as a problem power has to deal with, not something

The Politics of Incivility

The Flemish painter, Pieter Bruegel, portrayed in his artwork men relieving themselves, cripples begging, and peasants toiling — as well as butchery and the gallows. In his masterful work, The

Freedom of Speech, Liberal Democracy, and Emerging Evidence on Civility and Effective Democratic Engagement

On January 8, 2011, a mentally disturbed man opened fire on Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords at her “Congress on Your Corner” event. Six people died and several others, including the Congresswoman,