What is gluten?

@article{Biesiekierski2017WhatIG,
  title={What is gluten?},
  author={Jessica R Biesiekierski},
  journal={Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology},
  year={2017},
  volume={32},
  pages={78 - 81}
}
  • J. Biesiekierski
  • Published 2017
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Gluten is the main storage protein of wheat grains. Gluten is a complex mixture of hundreds of related but distinct proteins, mainly gliadin and glutenin. Similar storage proteins exist as secalin in rye, hordein in barley, and avenins in oats and are collectively referred to as “gluten.” The objective was to discuss the biochemical and functional properties of the gluten proteins, including structure, sources, and dietary intakes. Literature was reviewed from food science and nutrition… Expand
The Gluten Gene: Unlocking the Understanding of Gluten Sensitivity and Intolerance
TLDR
The present review considers genetic characteristics of gluten protein components, focusing on their role in the incidence of gluten-related diseases, and genetic modifications conducted to produce wheat with less immunological properties. Expand
Methods for the Modification and Evaluation of Cereal Proteins for the Substitution of Wheat Gluten in Dough Systems
TLDR
This article provides a comprehensive review of the most recent research done in protein modification of cereal and pseudocereals for gluten substitution and describes the effects and methodologies for studying the changes made with each type of modification. Expand
Recent practical researches in the development of gluten-free breads
  • H. Yano
  • Business, Medicine
  • npj Science of Food
  • 2019
TLDR
The ongoing advancements in the development of gluten-free bread are introduced, by the laboratory as well as others, focusing mainly on rice-based breads. Expand
The Role of Gluten-free Diet and Intestinal Microbiota on Glycemic Control and Diabetes Development
Gluten is an important ingredient of wheat protein, as about 90% of the total protein content is gluten. Besides, it is also present in barley, oat, and rye (1–3), and these gluten-rich cerealsExpand
Commissioning and validation of a method for the determination of gluten in different foods and ready meals
Gluten is the main storage protein of grains from Triticum genus (wheat, rye, barley and oat). Thus, it is present in diary diet, being 5-20g/d the average intake of this protein in east population.Expand
The Janus Face of Cereals: Wheat‐Derived Prebiotics Counteract the Detrimental Effect of Gluten on Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High‐Fat/High‐Sucrose Diet
TLDR
While gluten may affect metabolic homeostasis, these effects are lessened when gluten is consumed along with cereal‐derived fibers. Expand
Effects of species and breeding on wheat protein composition
TLDR
Results revealed significant improvement of technologically valuable parameters such as the amount of high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins and the gliadin to glutenin ratio, but no increase in immunogenic proteins. Expand
Development of gluten-free pasta using amaranth flour and pea protein flour
About 40 million people in U.S. are suffering from gluten-related diseases, resulting in the increased demand for gluten-free products. However, the challenge in developing a gluten-free product isExpand
Microbiome of root vegetables—a source of gluten-degrading bacteria
TLDR
It is discovered that bacteria from the families Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, and Clostridiaceae most effectively multiply in conditions similar to the human GIT while utilizing vegetable material and gluten as nutrients. Expand
Molecular Structure Investigation of Gluten and Its Role in Celiac Disease
TLDR
In this study, in addition to introducing the mechanism of celiac disease, the molecular structure of gluten and it interacts with HLA-DQ2 will be reviewed. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 16 REFERENCES
Chemistry of gluten proteins.
  • H. Wieser
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Food microbiology
  • 2007
TLDR
Non-covalent bonds such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophobic bonds are important for the aggregation of gliadins and glutenins and implicate structure and physical properties of dough. Expand
A Grounded Guide to Gluten: How Modern Genotypes and Processing Impact Wheat Sensitivity.
TLDR
A summary of the main pathologies related to wheat in the human body, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, nonceliac wheat sensitivity, fructose malabsorption, and irritable bowel syndrome is provided. Expand
Comprehensive, Quantitative Mapping of T Cell Epitopes in Gluten in Celiac Disease
TLDR
The discovery that a small number of peptides can elicit the disease in patients suggests that a similar approach may be successful in humans as well, and a detailed molecular understanding of the peptides driving the immune response in celiac disease is required. Expand
The Dietary Intake of Wheat and other Cereal Grains and Their Role in Inflammation
TLDR
Evidence from in vitro, in vivo and human intervention studies are discussed that describe how the consumption of wheat, but also other cereal grains, can contribute to the manifestation of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases by increasing intestinal permeability and initiating a pro-inflammatory immune response. Expand
Intake and sources of gluten in 20- to 75-year-old Danish adults: a national dietary survey
AbstractPurposeCeliac disease, an immunological response triggered by gluten, affects ~1 % of the Western population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. WeExpand
Intestinal digestive resistance of immunodominant gliadin peptides.
TLDR
It is shown that these proline-glutamine-rich epitopes from alpha-gliadin are exceptionally resistant to enzymatic processing, and a possible enzyme therapy strategy for celiac sprue is suggested. Expand
Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: piecing the puzzle together
TLDR
It is concluded that NCGS should be regarded as an independent disease outside of coeliac disease and wheat allergy, and that the number of patients affected is likely to be limited. Expand
Genetics of Wheat Storage Proteins and the Effect of Allelic Variation on Bread-Making Quality
TLDR
This paper presents a meta-analyses of the HMW Subunit Genes for Gliadin and Glutenin and their relationships with those for f3-Gliadins (GIi-2) and minor Gene Loci (Gli-l). Expand
Celiac lesion T cells recognize epitopes that cluster in regions of gliadins rich in proline residues.
TLDR
Several DQ2-restricted T-cell epitopes exist in gliadin that are located in regions rich in proline, which likely reflects epitope selection at the levels of digestive and antigen-presenting cell processing, transglutaminase-mediated deamidation, and/or peptide binding to D Q2. Expand
Oats induced villous atrophy in coeliac disease
TLDR
Oats were well tolerated by most patients but several reported initial abdominal discomfort and bloating, and five of the patients showed positive levels of interferon γ mRNA after challenge, some concerns therefore remain with respect to the safety of oats for coeliacs. Expand
...
1
2
...