A lab-on-a-chip (LoC) is a device that integrates multiple laboratory operations on a single chip platform and utilizes micro volumes of liquids to perform chemical or biochemical operations. The basic idea is to miniaturize and automate the tasks performed by human operators of equipment in a chemical laboratory, who transfer liquids in test tubes or beakers from one apparatus to another based upon local outcomes or established protocols. After each lab operation, the beakers and equipment are cleaned (by humans) and readied for reuse. Thus, although the chemical lab may not be automated and generally requires milliliters or liters of liquids, the tools are at least reconfigurable and reusable, giving great flexibility. Thus, a single lab with a standard set of tools and protocols can perform a large variety of tests and analyses. This, then, is a goal of a LoC device, but at a reduced scale.