What is a complex system?

  title={What is a complex system?},
  author={James Ladyman and James Lambert and Karoline Wiesner},
  journal={European Journal for Philosophy of Science},
Complex systems research is becoming ever more important in both the natural and social sciences. It is commonly implied that there is such a thing as a complex system, different examples of which are studied across many disciplines. However, there is no concise definition of a complex system, let alone a definition on which all scientists agree. We review various attempts to characterize a complex system, and consider a core set of features that are widely associated with complex systems in… 
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Volume II: The Simplicity of Complexity
  • J. Glattfelder
  • Computer Science
  • 2019
Whereas most of the cosmos is comprised of rather simple large-scale structures, on Earth, we find breathtaking complexity, down to microscopic scales. Indeed, it appears as though the universe is
Multidisciplinary Research as a Complex System
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This study extends the system metamodel with the concept of adaption in order to integrate adaptive computation in the so-called allagmatic method, which allows to better understand the emergence of typical characteristics of complex systems.


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Mathematics and Complex Systems
It is proposed that areas of mathematics, even ones based on simple axiomatic foundations, have discernible layers, entirely unexpected “macroscopic” outcomes, and both mathematical and physical ramifications profoundly beyond their historical beginnings.
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