What is a complex system?

@article{Ladyman2020WhatIA,
  title={What is a complex system?},
  author={James Ladyman and James Lambert and Karoline Wiesner},
  journal={European Journal for Philosophy of Science},
  year={2020},
  volume={3},
  pages={33-67}
}
Complex systems research is becoming ever more important in both the natural and social sciences. It is commonly implied that there is such a thing as a complex system, different examples of which are studied across many disciplines. However, there is no concise definition of a complex system, let alone a definition on which all scientists agree. We review various attempts to characterize a complex system, and consider a core set of features that are widely associated with complex systems in… 
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