What is a cladogram and what is not?

@article{Brower2016WhatIA,
  title={What is a cladogram and what is not?},
  author={Andrew V. Z. Brower},
  journal={Cladistics},
  year={2016},
  volume={32}
}
  • A. Brower
  • Published 1 October 2016
  • Biology
  • Cladistics
The origins and meanings of “cladogram” are reviewed. Traditionally, “cladogram” has been defined as a graphical representation of an empirical hypothesis of relationships among taxa, based on evidence from synapomorphies alone. Disturbingly, numerous recent authors treat “cladogram” as synonymous with “dendrogram” and do not appreciate the particular methodological connotations of the former term. This is lamented. 
Rethinking Tree-Thinking: Cladograms, Ancestors & Evidence
  • A. Brower
  • Biology
    The American Biology Teacher
  • 2016
TLDR
Comments are offered on two recent articles in The American Biology Teacher by Davenport and colleagues addressing the interpretation and construction of phylogenetic trees and an exercise employed in an introductory systematics course that emphasizes the empirical activities of character delimitation and formation of groups based on those characters.
Background knowledge: the assumptions of pattern cladistics
  • A. Brower
  • Psychology
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 2019
This paper reviews the ontogeny of pattern cladistics from the 1970s and 1980s, rebuts criticisms by contemporary anti‐cladists, and endeavours to clarify persistent misunderstandings about the
The jazz of cladistics*
TLDR
In this metaphorical ‘composition’, nine ‘dissonant chords’ related to the drowning out of cladistic performance are commented on, including the false assumption of the irrelevance of classification and clashes amongst cladists themselves.
A slippery reality: the epistemological shifting sands of tokogeny, phylogeny, lineages and species delimitation
  • A. Brower
  • Biology
    Systematics and Biodiversity
  • 2021
This essay provides an alternative perspective on the history of classification, species and subspecies concepts to that presented in a recent review by Padial and de la Riva. Central points of
Oral microbiome research – A Beginner's glossary
TLDR
The purpose of this article is to familiarize new researchers to the frequently used terms for the field of oral microbiome research.
Index
  • Cladistics
  • 2020
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
The meaning of “phenetic”
  • A. Brower
  • Biology
    Cladistics : the international journal of the Willi Hennig Society
  • 2012
Sir, A recent broadside critique of quantitative cladistic methods in ichthyology by Mooi and Gill (2010) applied the labels phylophenetics and phenetic cladistics to cladistic analytical approaches
The Tree-Thinking Challenge
TLDR
It has become apparent that trees are commonly misunderstood, leading to confusion about the concept of common ancestry, and tree thinking should be taught as an element of evolution training at all levels.
A METHOD FOR DEDUCING BRANCHING SEQUENCES IN PHYLOGENY
With the advent of relatively objective classifications, such as the phenetic classifications produced by the operational techniques of numerical taxonomy (Sokal and Sneath, 1963), it was inevitable
About nothing
In light of recent terminological controversy, this article reviews cladistic conceptions of character states coded as absences, symplesiomorphies, and secondary losses. The first section addresses
Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance
TLDR
It's coming again, the new collection that this site has; the favorite systematics and biogeography cladistics and vicariance book as the choice today.
Homology and errors
TLDR
An alternative definition of homology is proposed and primary and secondary homology are defended as realistic representations of discovery procedures in comparative biology, recognizable even in Direct Optimization.
Phylogenetics: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic Systematics
TLDR
This paper presents a systematic literature review of taxation alternatives to the PHYLOGENETIC system and some of the methods used, as well as some new ideas, that arose during this review.
Cladistics: The Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis
TLDR
The cladistic concepts of character coding, cladogram construction, character polarity, and rooting, and the effects of missing values are explained.
Molecular Evolution — A Phylogenetic Approach.
TLDR
The authors set themselves the tasks of showing how evolutionary information is written into gene sequences and describing the methods by which such information can be recovered and succeed, providing a wealth of examples and setting many of them in a historical perspective.
Foundations of systematics and biogeography
TLDR
This chapter discusses the development of Morphology in Germany from Ernst Haeckel to Willi Hennig, and the role of systematics in that development.
...
...