What is Meant by Calling Emotions Basic

  title={What is Meant by Calling Emotions Basic},
  author={Paul Ekman and Daniel T. Cordaro},
  journal={Emotion Review},
  pages={364 - 370}
Emotions are discrete, automatic responses to universally shared, culture-specific and individual-specific events. The emotion terms, such as anger, fear, etcetera, denote a family of related states sharing at least 12 characteristics, which distinguish one emotion family from another, as well as from other affective states. These affective responses are preprogrammed and involuntary, but are also shaped by life experiences. 
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Biology of posttraumatic stress disorder.
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    The Journal of clinical psychiatry
  • 2000
Some of the biological alterations in PTSD are examined and a framework for understanding the development progression of the neurobiology of this disorder is developed.
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