What explains regional variation in election fraud? Evidence from Russia: a research note

@article{Bader2015WhatER,
  title={What explains regional variation in election fraud? Evidence from Russia: a research note},
  author={Max Bader and Carolien van Ham},
  journal={Post-Soviet Affairs},
  year={2015},
  volume={31},
  pages={514 - 528}
}
The December 2011 legislative election was among the most fraudulent national elections in Russia since the communist period. The fraud, however, was not evenly spread across the country. Precinct-level election returns from the 83 regions of the Russian Federation suggest that the level of fraud ranged from minimal or small in some regions to extreme in some others, with moderate to high fraud levels in many regions in between. We argue that in an electoral authoritarian context like Russia… 
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