What does chronic electrical stimulation teach us about muscle plasticity?

@article{Pette1999WhatDC,
  title={What does chronic electrical stimulation teach us about muscle plasticity?},
  author={Dirk Pette and Gerta Vrb{\'o}va},
  journal={Muscle \& Nerve},
  year={1999},
  volume={22}
}
The model of chronic low‐frequency stimulation for the study of muscle plasticity was developed over 30 years ago. This protocol leads to a transformation of fast, fatigable muscles toward slower, fatigue‐resistant ones. It involves qualitative and quantitative changes of all elements of the muscle fiber studied so far. The multitude of stimulation‐induced changes makes it possible to establish the full adaptive potential of skeletal muscle. Both functional and structural alterations are caused… 

The Contribution of Neuromuscular Stimulation in Elucidating Muscle Plasticity Revisited

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It is concluded that absolute increases in UCP-3 protein content in the early adaptive phase were associated with the genesis of mitochondria containing a normal complement of U CP-3, however, during exposure to long-term CLFS, mitochondria were generated with a lower complement and coincided with the emergence of a growing population of oxidative type IIA fibers.

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