The incidents related to the medical devices are common during anesthesia and in intensive care unit. These incidents are rarely the cause of complications because monitoring detects them early; alternative scenarios allow bearing these problems. Although the incidence of these complications has much declined, these incidents are serious adverse events and at the origin of life-threatening complications. Improper use of medical devices is the main factor that promotes the onset of these complications. To maintain a high level of security, it is necessary to use and control procedures according to the manufacturer recommendations. This is part of a strategy involving users, biomedical engineers and manufacturers. Several actions are effective in preventing the occurrence of these incidents: the control before use, the continuation of the performance of the equipment, use based on the recommendations of the experts and manufacturers and appropriate training. This strategy is best applied by a clinical expert who has extensive technical knowledge. This expert is a key player for users learning and allows establishing and maintaining rules of use in collaboration with medical staff and biomedical engineers and manufacturers.