What are “Third-Wave” State Economic Development Efforts? From Incentives to Industrial Policy

@article{Bradshaw1999WhatA,
  title={What are “Third-Wave” State Economic Development Efforts? From Incentives to Industrial Policy},
  author={Ted K. Bradshaw and Edward James Blakely},
  journal={Economic Development Quarterly},
  year={1999},
  volume={13},
  pages={229 - 244}
}
“Third-wave” state economic development strategies have been widely acknowledged to reduce high-stakes incentives and promotions and have shifted emphasis from firm-based programs to broader regional programs. Although the change is well documented, less consensus has emerged about what has taken their place. Based on analysis of economic development programs in 16 states competing for high-technology industry, the study documented that the emerging third-wave economic development efforts… 

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