What Will it Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance?

@article{Hoffman2015WhatWI,
  title={What Will it Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance?},
  author={Steven J. Hoffman and Kevin Outterson},
  journal={The Journal of Law, Medicine \& Ethics},
  year={2015},
  volume={43},
  pages={363 - 368}
}
Of the many global health challenges facing the world today, only a small number require global collective action. Most health challenges can be fully addressed through action at local, regional or national levels. What kind of actions must be taken to address the global threat of antibiotic resistance (ABR)? What legal, political and economic tools might be needed to achieve this level of action? In March 2015 the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation convened a workshop in Uppsala, Sweden to address… 
A Global Antimicrobial Conservation Fund for Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
TLDR
If the authors are to ultimately reverse or indeed decelerate their new reality of the post-antibiotic era, then antibiotic conservation is going to need to take centre stage in an overarching strategy for AMR control, while they wait for new products to be developed, and even once they have them.
Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums
  • Z. Rizvi, S. Hoffman
  • Medicine
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
  • 2015
TLDR
Four different forums that states may use to develop an international legal agreement for antibiotic resistance are evaluated: (1) a self-organized venue; (2) the World Health Organization; (3) theWorld Trade Organization; and (4) the United Nations General Assembly.
Bridging the commitment-compliance gap in global health politics: Lessons from international relations for the global action plan on antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
To bridge the commitment-compliance gap, international leaders should: frame incentives to maximise interests for action, pursue enforcement mechanisms to induce state behaviour, and find opportunities for continual social learning.
Developing an approach to assessing the political feasibility of global collective action and an international agreement on antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
An approach to assessing whether political and stakeholder interests can align to commit to tackling AMR is described, and a typology of four country archetypes is outlined to understand whether a proposed agreement may have sufficient support to be politically feasible.
Strengthening the science of addressing antimicrobial resistance: a framework for planning, conducting and disseminating antimicrobial resistance intervention research
TLDR
This framework identifies challenges in AMR research, areas for enhanced coordination and cooperation with decision-makers, and best practices in the design of impact evaluations for AMR policies.
Governing the Global Antimicrobial Commons: Introduction to Special Issue
TLDR
The lessons for antimicrobial resistance that can be learned from recent climate change agreements are explored and how existing international laws can be adapted to better support global action in the short-term are explored.
AMR-Intervene: a social-ecological framework to capture the diversity of actions to tackle antimicrobial resistance from a One Health perspective.
TLDR
AMR-Intervene provides a broadly applicable framework that can inform the design, implementation, assessment and reporting of interventions to tackle AMR and, in turn, enable faster uptake of successful interventions to build societal resilience to AMR.
Social, cultural and economic aspects of antimicrobial resistance
TLDR
The recommendation of the United Nations Interagency Coordination Group on Antimicrobial Resistance for creating an Independent Panel on Evidence for Action against such resistance is endorsed, with appropriate expertise across disciplines including the social sciences.
Some Global Policies for Antibiotic Resistance Depend on Legally Binding and Enforceable Commitments
TLDR
The inclusion of these policies in an international legal agreement could effectively support global collective action towards several ABR policy goals, some of which may depend on it for their achievement.
Lessons learned from COVID-19 for the post-antibiotic future
TLDR
AMR represents a slow-moving disaster that offers a unique opportunity to proactively develop interventions to mitigate its impact and there is a moral imperative to take stock of lessons learned and opportunities to prepare for the next global health emergency.
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Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums
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  • Medicine
    The Journal of law, medicine & ethics : a journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
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TLDR
Four different forums that states may use to develop an international legal agreement for antibiotic resistance are evaluated: (1) a self-organized venue; (2) the World Health Organization; (3) theWorld Trade Organization; and (4) the United Nations General Assembly.
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TLDR
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TLDR
An international agreement would allow integrating surveillance data collection, monitoring and enforcement, research into antibiotic alternatives and more sustainable approaches to agriculture, technical assistance and capacity building, and financing under the umbrella of a One Health approach.
International Law Has a Role to Play in Addressing Antibiotic Resistance
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TLDR
Since addressing ABR depends on near-universal and interdependent collective action across sectors, states should utilize an international legal agreement - which formally represents the strongest commitment mechanism available to them.
Some Global Policies for Antibiotic Resistance Depend on Legally Binding and Enforceable Commitments
TLDR
The inclusion of these policies in an international legal agreement could effectively support global collective action towards several ABR policy goals, some of which may depend on it for their achievement.
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TLDR
Historical analysis permits us to highlight entrenched trends and processes, helping to frame contemporary efforts to improve access, conservation and innovation to tackle antibiotic resistance.
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TLDR
More research on global strategies for achieving collective action is needed to help inform future institutional designs that are both effective and politically feasible.
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Universal access to effective antimicrobials is essential to the realization of the right to health. At present, 5.7 million people die from treatable infections each year because they lack this
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Cost-effective solutions already exist for many of the greatest global health challenges. Yet a gap is present between the health outcomes we can theoretically achieve and those we are actually
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TLDR
Three specific reforms are proposed that could revitalize innovations that protect public health, while promoting long-term sustainability: increased incentives for antibiotic research and development, surveillance, and stewardship; greater targeting of incentives to high-priority public health needs, including reimbursement that is delinked from volume of drug use; and enhanced global collaboration.
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