What Makes Mathematics Manipulatives Effective? Lessons From Cognitive Science and Montessori Education

@article{Laski2015WhatMM,
  title={What Makes Mathematics Manipulatives Effective? Lessons From Cognitive Science and Montessori Education},
  author={Elida V. Laski and Jamilah R. Jor’dan and Carolyn Jean Daoust and Angela K. Murray},
  journal={SAGE Open},
  year={2015},
  volume={5}
}
Manipulatives are ubiquitous in early childhood classrooms; yet, findings regarding their efficacy for learning mathematics concepts are inconsistent. In this article, we present four general principles that have emerged from cognitive science about ways to ensure that manipulatives promote learning when used with young children. We also describe how Montessori instruction offers a concrete example of the application of these principles in practice, which may, in turn, explain the high levels… 

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