What Language Did Toussaint Louverture Speak?: The Fort de Joux Memoir and the Origins of Haitian Kreyòl*

@article{Girard2013WhatLD,
  title={What Language Did Toussaint Louverture Speak?: The Fort de Joux Memoir and the Origins of Haitian Krey{\`o}l*},
  author={P. Girard},
  journal={Annales (English ed.)},
  year={2013},
  volume={68},
  pages={107 - 130}
}
  • P. Girard
  • Published 2013
  • History
  • Annales (English ed.)
  • Using contemporary accounts, letters drafted by former slaves, and the memoir written by Toussaint Louverture shortly before his death, this article attempts to recreate the language spoken by Haitian revolutionaries and, in particular, Toussaint Louverture. Detailed historical and linguistic analysis of these sources shows that Louverture wrote predominantly in French, only employed Kreyòl orally (especially when addressing a working-class audience), and rarely used the Ewe-Fon language of his… CONTINUE READING