What Drives Immediate and Ongoing Word of Mouth?

  title={What Drives Immediate and Ongoing Word of Mouth?},
  author={Jonah A. Berger and Eric M. Schwartz},
  journal={Journal of Marketing Research},
  pages={869 - 880}
Word of mouth (WOM) affects diffusion and sales, but why are certain products talked about more than others, both right after consumers first experience them and in the months that follow? This article examines psychological drivers of immediate and ongoing WOM. The authors analyze a unique data set of everyday conversations for more than 300 products and conduct both a large field experiment across various cities and a controlled laboratory experiment with real conversations. The results… 

On Brands and Word of Mouth

Brands and word of mouth (WOM) are cornerstones of the marketing field, and yet their relationship has received relatively little attention. This study aims to enhance understanding of brand

On Brands and Word-of-Mouth

Brands and word-of-mouth (WOM) are cornerstones of marketing, yet, their relationship was largely ignored. In order to explore this relationship we present a theoretical framework whose fundamentals

Speaking for “Free”: Word of Mouth in Free- and Paid-Product Settings

This research examines drivers of consumer word of mouth (WOM) in free-product settings, revealing fundamental differences with traditional, paid-product settings. The authors build and investigate a

You’re not yelping your case: the unexpected social consequences of word of mouth

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether people’s intuitions regarding the social consequences of word of mouth (WOM) match the actual consequences. The authors investigate the expectations

Investigating how Word-of-Mouth Conversations about Brands Influence Purchase and Retransmission Intentions

This study investigates how the valence, channel, and social tie strength of a word-of-mouth (WOM) conversation about a brand relate to the purchase intentions and WOM retransmission intentions of

How Word of Mouth in Social Media Affects Attitudes Toward Brands

People constantly communicate with each other; they talk and share information about everything. The Internet provides numerous ways for consumers to share their views, preferences, or experiences

Word-of-mouth marketing influence on offline and online communications: Evidence from case study research

This case study reports results from three research studies conducted over 12 weeks as part of a product seeding campaign. Partnering with a word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) agency for this research,

Beer Brand Word-of-Mouth Drivers in Colombia: A Qualitative Exploration

This paper explores which motivational drivers incline consumers to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication within the Colombian beer market, forecast to be among the most important beer markets

Customer-to-customer interactions and word of mouth: conceptual extensions and empirical investigations

Although the importance of customer orientation has been well addressed in strategic marketing, these ideas generally focus on managing business-to-customer interactions. Strategic importance of



Using Online Conversations to Study Word-of-Mouth Communication

It is found that online conversations may offer an easy and cost-effective opportunity to measure word of mouth and it is shown that a measure of the dispersion of conversations across communities has explanatory power in a dynamic model of TV ratings.

Firm-Created Word-of-Mouth Communication: Evidence from a Field Test

It is found that although opinion leadership is useful in identifying potentially effective spreaders of WOM among very loyal customers, it is less useful for the sample of less loyal customers.

Word-of-Mouth as Self-Enhancement

In this research we predict and demonstrate that consumers' propensities to generate word-of-mouth (WOM) is affected by their motivation to self-enhance, that is, to seek experiences that bolster the

Word-of-Mouth for Movies: Its Dynamics and Impact on Box Office Revenue

Abstract This article uses actual word-of-mouth (WOM) information to examine the dynamic patterns of WOM and how it helps explain box office revenue. The WOM data were collected from the Yahoo Movies

The Effect of Need for Uniqueness on Word of Mouth

This research examines the psychosocial cost associated with positive word of mouth (WOM), which can decrease the uniqueness of possessions and thus harm high-uniqueness consumers (pilot study). As a

Effects of Word-of-Mouth versus Traditional Marketing: Findings from an Internet Social Networking Site

The authors study the effect of word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing on member growth at an Internet social networking site and compare it with traditional marketing vehicles. Because social network sites

What Makes Online Content Viral?

Why are certain pieces of online content (e.g., advertisements, videos, news articles) more viral than others? This article takes a psychological approach to understanding diffusion. Using a unique

Talk of the Network: A Complex Systems Look at the Underlying Process of Word-of-Mouth

The results clearly indicate that information dissemination is dominated by both weak and strong w-o-m, rather than by advertising, which means that strong and weak ties become the main forces propelling growth.

Consumer Learning: Advertising and the Ambiguity of Product Experience

This paper examines the influence of advertising on how and what consumers learn from product experience. A hypothesis-testing framework is adopted where consumers treat advertisements as tentative

Dogs on the Street, Pumas on Your Feet: How Cues in the Environment Influence Product Evaluation and Choice

Little empirical research has examined the implicit effects of environmental cues on consumer behavior. Across six studies using a combination of field and laboratory methods, the authors find that