What Democracy Is. . . and Is Not

  title={What Democracy Is. . . and Is Not},
  author={Philippe C . Schmitter and Philippe C Terry Lynn Karl},
  journal={Journal of Democracy},
  pages={75 - 88}
Philippe C. Schmitter is professor of political science and director of the Center for European Studies at Stanford University. Terry Lynn Karl is associate professor of political science and director of the Center for Latin American Studies at the same institution. The original, longer version of this essay was written at the request of the United States Agency for International Development, which is not responsible for its content. 
Civic perspectives on a Democratic Transformation of the EU
Concepts of democracy are changing. This is not in the least reflected by the fact that although the term democracy plays a key role in political science — in empirical analysis as well as in
The Consolidation of Democracy and Representation of Social Groups
To the neophyte graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley in the early 1960s, attending Seymour Martin Lipset’s course on political sociology (Sociology 290) was a revelation. The
Democracy: A Never-Ending Quest
Most of my work focused on the functioning and the limits of democracy. I place the evolution of our understanding of this bewildering institution in the context of historical events and consider the
The External Dimension of Democratisation
This chapter reviews the way in which the literature concerned with democratisation and the transition to democracy varied with regard to the relative importance assigned to domestic and external
Measuring the support for democracy in Namibia : intrinsic or instrumental?
This paper argues that the notion of liberal democracy is inadequate in explaining the challenges faced by the Namibian government in its attempts to consolidate democracy. The contention is that
Is the Good Polity Attainable? – Measuring the Quality of Democracy
This article introduces a discussion on defining, measuring, and assessing the quality of democracy. Providing a short overview of the papers of the Symposium, it places them within a broader context
Searching Where the Light Shines: Studying Democratization in the Middle East
▪ Abstract For several decades, political scientists who work on the Middle East have been asked by both disciplinary and policy audiences about the region's prospects for democratization. We
Democracy From the Outside-In? : The Conceptualization and Significance of Democracy Promotion
This study explores the literature on factors favorable to democratization. It is argued that there has been a domestic dominance, with international factors a forgotten dimension. It is also argue
Is Turkey a Democracy?
Turkey is increasingly democratic, in recent years having renegotiated it’s own form of ‘social contract’ to more accurately reflect the socio-political aspirations of the population and challenge
Democracy, Law, and Comparative Politics
This article offers a revision of democratic theory in light of the experience of recently democratized countries, located outside of the northwestern quadrant of the world. First, various


The Crisis of Democracy
The report outlines that in 1960sWestern Europe the governments are “overloaded with participants and demands” which the highly bureaucratic political systems are unable to handle, thus rendering
Democracy in America.
Abridged, with an Introduction by Patrick Renshaw. Democracy in America is a classic of political philosophy. Hailed by John Stuart Mill and Horace Greely as the finest book ever written on the
Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy
Explores the relation between a socialist view of society and the democratic method of government; argues that socialism is probably inevitable, for political rather than economic reasons. The book
After the Revolution? Authority in a Good Society
Three criteria for authority varieties of demographic authority democracy and markets from principles to problems.
Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America
The demise of authoritarian rule in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, and Uruguay, when combined with efforts at political liberalization in Mexico and the recent election of civilian
Freedom in the World: Political Rights and Civil Liberties
The Comparative Survey of Freedom is an institutional effort by Freedom House to monitor the progress and decline of political rights and civil lib-erties in 191 nations and 59 related territories.
Confining Conditions and Revolutionary Breakthroughs
I want to try to connect the course of several regimes with what, for want of a better name, I shall call “confining conditions”—the particular social and intellectual conditions present at the
Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986)
  • For another compilation that adopts a more structural approach see Larry Diamond, Juan Linz, and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Democracy in Developing Countries, vols. 2, 3, and 4
  • 1989