What Constitutes Dental Caries? Histopathology of Carious Enamel and Dentin Related to the Action of Cariogenic Biofilms

  title={What Constitutes Dental Caries? Histopathology of Carious Enamel and Dentin Related to the Action of Cariogenic Biofilms},
  author={Edwina A. M. Kidd and Ole Fejerskov},
  journal={Journal of Dental Research},
  pages={35 - 38}
Substantial pH fluctuations within the biofilm on the tooth surface are a ubiquitous and natural phenomenon, taking place at any time during the day and night. The result may be recordable in the dental tissues at only a chemical and/or ultrastructural level (subclinical level). Alternatively, a net loss of mineral leading to dissolution of dental hard tissues may result in a caries lesion that can be seen clinically. Thus, the appearance of the lesion may vary from an initial loss of mineral… 

Maintaining the integrity of the enamel surface: the role of dental biofilm, saliva and preventive agents in enamel demineralization and remineralization.

Studies involving probiotics and molecular genetics have provided results showing that these methods can replace and displace cariogenic bacteria with noncariogenic bacteria, while maintaining normal oral homeostasis.

Assessment of Root Caries Lesion Activity and Its Histopathological Features.

This chapter presents thehistological changes to the dentin and pulp, occurring physiologically or in response to caries lesions, and focuses on the histological features specific to RC lesions.

The Early Enamel Carious Lesion

Enamel caries start by a central demineralization of rods, enlargement of enamel sheaths, and the formation of tunnels crossing the surface zone, which reaches the dentinoenamel junction and the lesion spreads into dentin.

Dental Caries Indices used for Detection, Diagnosis, and Assessment of Dental Caries

Currently, dental caries is described to arise from a variety of disease states starting from initial subclinical lesion and continue to subsurface changes to clinically detectable lesions which can

Enamel and Dentin Carious Lesions

A decrease in calcium, phosphorus and carbonate composition was established in the initial lcarious lesion, whereas magnesium was increased both in the carious enamel translucent and dark zones.

Dental Anatomical Features and Caries: A Relationship to be Investigated

The aim of this chapter is to review the influence of dental anatomy on dental caries development while taking into account recent findings in cariology.

Nanostructure of carious tooth enamel lesion.

The oral microbiome in dental caries.

Dental caries is one of the most common chronic and multifactorial diseases affecting the human population and appears to be influenced by large scale changes in protein expression over time and under genetic control.

Antibacterial agents in composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries.

It was unable to identify any randomised controlled trials on the effects of antibacterial agents incorporated into composite restorations for the prevention of dental caries, and the absence of high level evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention emphasises the need for well designed, adequately powered, Randomised controlled clinical trials.



A structural analysis of approximal enamel caries lesions and subjacent dentin reactions.

Results did not support the view that dentin caries spreads along the enamel-dentin junction, and it was revealed that the peripheral dentin translucency is therefore generated by stimuli transmitted along the rods of the less advanced parts of theEnamel lesions.

Chemical Events during Tooth Dissolution

  • M. Larsen
  • Materials Science, Medicine
    Journal of dental research
  • 1990
It was concluded that any dissolution of enamel is caused by an undersaturation with respect to enamel apatite, and it was observed that different areas of the enamel surface possess different degrees of resistance.

A scanning electron microscopic study of progressive stages of enamel caries in vivo.

Results indicate that enlarged intercrystalline pathways provide the most important routes for the transport of minerals out of the enamel and the relative protection offered to the outermost crystals at any stage of lesion formation may be an indication of inhibitors acting at the plaque/enamel interface.

The detection and prevalence of reactive and physiologic sclerotic dentin, reparative dentin and dead tracts beneath various types of dental lesions according to tooth surface and age.

The pulpo-dentinal complex responds to external injuries with dentin sclerosis (DS), dead tracts (DT), or reparative dentin (RD) utilizing ground sections, microradiographs and decalcified paraffin-embedded tooth sections treated with the Pollak trichrome stains.

Arrest of Root Surface Caries in situ

It is concluded that daily plaque removal and topical fluoride use influence the distribution of mineral in sound and carious root surfaces and may arrest lesion progression without affecting the total mineral content.

Clinical and histological features observed during arrestment of active enamel carious lesions in vivo.

A decrease in tissue porosity especially in the deepest parts of the lesions while the outer surface appeared more porous than in the base-line lesions and a gradual regression in lesion area and degree of opacity was noted during the following 3 weeks.

Concepts of dental caries and their consequences for understanding the disease.

  • O. Fejerskov
  • Medicine
    Community dentistry and oral epidemiology
  • 1997
It is concluded that several paradigms about the nature of dental caries should be reconsidered to provide the most cost-effective dental services.

A 3-year clinical and SEM study of surface changes of carious enamel lesions after inactivation.

  • J. ÅrtunA. Thylstrup
  • Medicine
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
  • 1989

Active root surface caries converted into inactive caries as a response to oral hygiene.

It is concluded that when dealing with root surface caries it is essential to distinguish between active and inactive lesions and that classical operative treatment to a great extent can be avoided.