What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?

@article{Vasey2007WhatCT,
  title={What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?},
  author={Paul L. Vasey and Paul L Nancy H Bartlett},
  journal={Perspectives in Biology and Medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={50},
  pages={481 - 490}
}
This article examines whether gender identity disorder in childhood (GIDC) constitutes a mental disorder as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). Data were collected in Samoa, a culture that is characterized by a high degree of social tolerance towards feminine males who are known locally as fa'afafine. The study location was chosen because, unlike Western locales, it afforded the opportunity to examine whether gender-atypical behavior… Expand
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Retrospective reports of childhood separation anxiety for Samoan men, women, and fa’afafine are compared to research on U.S. and Canadian boys with GIDC to suggest that separation anxiety in childhood may represent a universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most gender-atypical, androphilic males, regardless of their cultural milieu. Expand
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