What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?

@article{Vasey2007WhatCT,
  title={What Can the Samoan "Fa'afafine" Teach Us about the Western Concept of Gender Identity Disorder in Childhood?},
  author={Paul L. Vasey and Nancy H. Bartlett},
  journal={Perspectives in Biology and Medicine},
  year={2007},
  volume={50},
  pages={481 - 490}
}
This article examines whether gender identity disorder in childhood (GIDC) constitutes a mental disorder as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV-TR). Data were collected in Samoa, a culture that is characterized by a high degree of social tolerance towards feminine males who are known locally as fa'afafine. The study location was chosen because, unlike Western locales, it afforded the opportunity to examine whether gender-atypical behavior… 

Traits of Separation Anxiety in Childhood: A Retrospective Study of Samoan Men, Women, and Fa’afafine

Retrospective reports of childhood separation anxiety for Samoan men, women, and fa’afafine are compared to research on U.S. and Canadian boys with GIDC to suggest that separation anxiety in childhood may represent a universal pattern of psychosexual development shared by most gender-atypical, androphilic males, regardless of their cultural milieu.

Birth order and recalled childhood gender nonconformity in Samoan men and fa'afafine

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The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Children

  • K. Zucker
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    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2010
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Support is furnishes support for the conclusion that female-typical occupational preferences are a cross-culturally invariant aspect of male androphilia in Samoa.

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The present study indicated that transgendered male androphilia is familial in this particular Samoan village, thus adding to a growing literature demonstrating that male andphilia and gender atypicality have consistent developmental correlates across populations.

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