What Can Plasticity Contribute to Insect Responses to Climate Change?

  title={What Can Plasticity Contribute to Insect Responses to Climate Change?},
  author={Carla M. Sgr{\`o} and John S. Terblanche and Ary Anthony Hoffmann},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
Plastic responses figure prominently in discussions on insect adaptation to climate change. Here we review the different types of plastic responses and whether they contribute much to adaptation. Under climate change, plastic responses involving diapause are often critical for population persistence, but key diapause responses under dry and hot conditions remain poorly understood. Climate variability can impose large fitness costs on insects showing diapause and other life cycle responses… 

Figures from this paper

Phenotypic plasticity in response to climate change: the importance of cue variation

The climatic factors linked to the breeding phenology of the birds and their main food source are investigated, and the importance of integrating ecological mechanisms shaping variation in plasticity is highlighted if the authors are to understand how global change will affect plasticity and its consequences for population biology.

Validating measurements of acclimation for climate change adaptation.

Does local adaptation along a latitudinal cline shape plastic responses to combined thermal and nutritional stress?

Drosophila melanogaster populations sampled from a latitudinal gradient investigated whether plastic responses to combinations of nutrition and temperature increase or decrease with latitude for four traits: egg‐adult viability, egg‐ adult development time, and two body size traits.

Phenotypic Plasticity for Desiccation Resistance, Climate Change, and Future Species Distributions: Will Plasticity Have Much Impact?

It is shown, using the semimechanistic SDM CLIMEX, that the inclusion of plasticity has some impact on current species distributions and future vulnerability for widespread species but has little impact on the distribution of arguably more vulnerable tropically restricted species.

Thermal Plasticity in Insects’ Response to Climate Change and to Multifactorial Environments

The genomics of thermal plasticity and its relationship to thermal adaptation and thermal tolerance, and to climate change and multifactorial environments are discussed.

Extensive phenotypic plasticity in a seasonal butterfly limits potential for evolutionary responses to environmental change

Depleted variation for plasticity in an African savannah butterfly displaying extensive plasticity as adaptation to predictable dry-wet seasonality may crucially limit evolutionary potential when conditions change, and seasonally plastic species may in fact be especially vulnerable to climate change.

Plasticity for desiccation tolerance across Drosophila species is affected by phylogeny and climate in complex ways

Some species have the ability to counter dry periods through plastic responses, whereas others do not; and this ability will depend to some extent on a species' placement within a phylogeny, along with its basal level of resistance.

How do phenology, plasticity, and evolution determine the fitness consequences of climate change for montane butterflies?

The results illustrate how the potential contributions of phenological and morphological plasticity and of evolution to climate change adaptation can vary along environmental gradients and how environmental variability will limit adaptive responses toClimate change in montane regions.

Environmental variability shapes evolution, plasticity and biogeographic responses to climate change

It is predicted that phenology accelerates with decreasing elevation and cli‐ mate change, but gradients in pupal and adult temperature with climate change are modest, but plasticity can reduce evolutionary lags by facilitat‐ ing trait evolution.

Variation in adult stress resistance does not explain vulnerability to climate change in copper butterflies

The results suggest that, in the 3 species studied here, vulnerability to climate change is not in the first place determined by stress resistance in the adult stage, and it is argued that more research effort should be dedicated to other developmental stages when trying to understand insect responses to environmental change.



Impacts of environmental variability on desiccation rate, plastic responses and population dynamics of Glossina pallidipes

Using the puparia of an important insect disease vector, Glossina pallidipes, a novel combination of an experimental approach and a population dynamics model is used to examine the potential relative fitness effects of simulated transient weather conditions on population growth rates.

What is phenotypic plasticity and why is it important

Phenotypic plasticity is important because it is an encompassing model to understand life on earth, it can increase fitness, generate novelity, and facilitate evolution, it structures ecological communities, and it has numerous practical applications.

Directional selection on cold tolerance does not constrain plastic capacity in a butterfly

The results indicate that plastic capacities are not always constrained by directional selection (on cold tolerance) and therefore genetic changes in trait means, but may operate independently.

Predicting organismal vulnerability to climate warming: roles of behaviour, physiology and adaptation

It is concluded that ectotherms sharing vulnerability traits seem concentrated in lowland tropical forests and their vulnerability may be exacerbated by negative biotic interactions, as genetic and selective data are scant.

The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change.

It is shown that when population differentiation is accounted for and dispersal is restricted, forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are even more pessimistic than those using the conventional assumption of homogeneously high plasticity across a species' range.

Developmental plasticity and acclimation both contribute to adaptive responses to alternating seasons of plenty and of stress in Bicyclus butterflies

This work examines the bases of the developmental plasticity in a model species, B. anynana, and also the evolution of key adult life history traits, including starvation resistance and longevity, and now understands something about the processes that generate variation in the phenotype, and about the ecological context of responses to environmental stress.

Climatic Predictors of Temperature Performance Curve Parameters in Ectotherms Imply Complex Responses to Climate Change

It is shown that in squamate ectotherms, two fitness-influencing components of performance, the critical thermal maximum and the thermal optimum, are more closely related to temperature variation and to precipitation, respectively, than they are to mean thermal conditions.

Interacting Effects of Phenotypic Plasticity and Evolution on Population Persistence in a Changing Climate

  • T. ReedD. SchindlerR. Waples
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
  • 2011
It is believed the ecological and evolutionary issues relevant to population persistence as climate changes are the rate, type, magnitude, and spatial pattern of climate‐induced abiotic and biotic change.

Thermal Tolerance in Widespread and Tropical Drosophila Species: Does Phenotypic Plasticity Increase with Latitude?

The results do not support the hypothesis that widely distributed species have larger phenotypic plasticity for thermalolerance limits, and Drosophila species distributions are therefore more closely linked to differences in innate thermal tolerance limits.

Thermal variability alters climatic stress resistance and plastic responses in a globally invasive pest, the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata)

Examination of short‐term variation in mean temperature at three levels of diel thermal fluctuations on an invasive pest insect suggests that increased mean temperatures in conjunction with increased temperature variability may have stronger negative effects on this agricultural pest than elevated temperatures alone.