With enhanced surgical techniques and neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer, survivorship issues are at the forefront of clinical practice and research. More and more patients are living with altered bowel habits following rectal cancer surgery. Sound assessment of anorectal function after rectal cancer surgery is the foundation for the continuing effort to explore the adverse effects of such surgery on bowel function, as well as for working towards reducing these effects. The quality of the assessment is predominantly determined by the instrument administered. This article reviews various questionnaires for capturing anorectal function after surgery in rectal cancer, discussing their attributes and suitability for different evaluation contexts.