What’s a Mother to Do?

  title={What’s a Mother to Do?},
  author={Steven L. Kuhn and Mary C. Stiner},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  pages={953 - 981}
Recent huntergatherers display much uniformity in the division of labor along the lines of gender and age. The complementary economic roles for men and women typical of ethnographically documented huntergatherers did not appear in Eurasia until the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. The rich archaeological record of Middle Paleolithic cultures in Eurasia suggests that earlier hominins pursued more narrowly focused economies, with womens activities more closely aligned with those of men with… 

Paleolithic Diet and the Division of Labor in Mediterranean Eurasia

Hunter-gatherers of the recent era vary in many aspects of culture, yet they display great uniformity in their tendency to divide labor along the lines of gender and age. We argue on the basis of

Farewell to the ‘childhood of man’: ritual, seasonality, and the origins of inequality

Evidence of grand burials and monumental construction is a striking feature in the archaeological record of the Upper Palaeolithic period, between 40 and 10 kya (thousand years ago). Archaeologists

1 Farewell to the “ Childhood of Man ” : ritual , seasonality , and the origins of inequality 1

Evidence of grand burials and monumental construction is a striking feature in the archaeological record of the Upper Palaeolithic period, between forty and ten thousand years ago. Archaeologists

The Evolution of Hominin Diets

Studies in southern Africa, western Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin have documented changes in subsistence strategies and technologies during the Late Pleistocene, and have often related them to

Modern gender roles and agricultural history: the Neolithic inheritance

This research proposes the hypothesis that societies with long histories of agriculture have less equality in gender roles as a consequence of more patriarchal values and beliefs regarding the proper


Summary The cognitive and social capacities of Neandertals have been questioned by a number of authors, while others suggest that such capacities did not differ markedly from those of anatomically

An Unshakable Middle Paleolithic?

  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science
    Current Anthropology
  • 2013
Examination of data for possible trends in the size of the hominin ecological footprint, hunting practices, trophic level, food sharing, and the intensity with which sites were occupied concludes that the seeming rigidity of MP hunting economics could have been the secret to its widespread success for 200,000 years.

Middle Paleolithic Large-Mammal Hunting in the Southern Levant

I examine the ungulate remains from late Middle Paleolithic (MP) Kebara Cave (Israel) and offer evidence pointing to overhunting by Levantine Neanderthals toward the close of the MP: (1) the

Searching for the “Roots” of Masculinity in Primates and the Human Evolutionary Past

The reconstruction and prioritization of masculinity in human evolution (and thus human nature) is often rooted in reference to other primates and the hominin fossil and archaeological record. And it



The Tortoise and the Hare

Ranking small prey in terms of work of capture (in the absence of special harvesting tools) proved far more effective in this investigation of human diet breadth than have the taxonomic-diversity analyses published previously.

Distorting the past : gender and the division of labor in the European Upper Paleolithic

T hunting of big game in prehistory has always been thought of as an activity that would be carried out by strong and able men, who would have the role of meatwinners (since there was no bread at

The Organization of Male and Female Labor in Foraging Societies: Implications for Early Paleoindian Archaeology

I use cross-cultural ethnographic data to explore the relationship between male and female subsistence labor among hunter-gatherer populations by examining data regarding resource procurement, time

!Kung Women: Contrasts in Sexual Egalitarianism in Foraging and Sedentary Contexts

Contrary evidence is now emerging from several researchers that men and women of band-level societies have many overlapping activities and spheres of activity and the distinction between male and female roles is substantially less rigid than previously supposed.

Prehistoric Rites of Passage: A Comparative Study of Transegalitarian Hunter–Gatherers

Abstract Footprints and handprints clearly indicate that adolescents took part in the cave rituals of Upper Paleolithic Europe. We argue that the cave paintings were created by transegalitarian

Thinking outside the box: A new perspective on diet breadth and sexual division of labor in the Prearchaic Great Basin

The simulation for Railroad Valley, Nevada, suggests the explanation for the diversity of subsistence remains in PHT records lies in different foraging strategies for men and women, rather than risk aversion alone, and suggests that Prearchaic hunter-gatherers enjoyed a narrower diet breadth than later foragers.

Neandertals, competition, and the origin of modern human behavior in the Levant

  • J. Shea
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2003
The East Mediterranean Levant is a small region, but its paleoanthropological record looms large in debates about the origin of modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals. For most of the

Neanderthal Carnivory. (Book Reviews: Honor Among Thieves. A Zooarchaeological Study of Neandertal Ecology.)

  • M. Stiner
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1994
The conclusion is that Neandertals entered the Middle Palaeolithic in direct and successful competition with lions, hyenas and wolves, but ended the period in unsuccessful struggle for the ecological niche that modern humans came to occupy with more advanced technology and slightly more sophisticated ambush hunting strategies and techniques.

Ancestral Lifeways in Eurasia — The Middle and Upper Paleolithic Records

The origin of modern humans is a hot topic today and, as can be seen from the number of major symposia and volumes devoted to the topic (e.g., Smith and Spencer 1984; Mellars and Stringer 1989;

Male strategies and Plio-Pleistocene archaeology.

Collectively, Plio-Pleistocene site location and assemblage composition are consistent with the hypothesis that large carcasses were taken not for purposes of provisioning, but in the context of competitive male displays, suggesting that meat was consumed at or near the point of acquisition, not at home bases as the hunting hypothesis requires.